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Geography of Asia


About 3/4 of Asia's surface is made up of mountains and plateaus. The Ural Mountains, which reach just under 2,000 m above sea level, form Asia's border with Europe. From Pamir ("roof of the world"), a highland more than 7,500 m above sea level, systems of mountain ranges go west and southwest to Turkey, to the northeast to the Tjuktjer Peninsula and Kamchatka, to the east to China and to the southeast with continuation to south to the Malacca Peninsula and Indonesia. Several chains are among the world's highest, e.g. Tian Shan (over 7,000 meters above sea level), Kunlun Shan, with an average height of 6,000 meters above sea level. along the entire stretch, and the Himalayas with Mount Everest (8,848 m asl, the world's highest peak). Large parts of the chains are glacial eroded, and glaciers are common. Between the chains lie high plateaus such as the Anatolian and Iranian (approx. 1,000 m above sea level) and Tibet, with plains of 4,300–6,500 m above sea level, and the creek as Tarim (800–1,000 m ash).), The Dzungariet (at most less than 1,000 meters above sea level), Gobi (about 1,000 meters above sea level), Qaidam (2 700 meters above sea level), the Red Basin (500–600 meters above sea level) and Turpan (154 meters above sea level). In a rift lies Lake Baikal, 1,940 m deep and thus the world's deepest lake. The Central Siberian Highlands is one of the rivers, heavily ravaged plateau area (approx. 1000 m above sea level), north of the major mountain ranges. South of the major chains lies the Deccan Plateau, which covers most of India, as well as the Arabian Peninsula. Deccan is highest in the west. The Western Ghats reach over 2,500 meters above sea level. In the northwest, it provides about 500,000 km2 large basalt flows give rise to stepwise topography. The Arabian Peninsula reaches 3,760 m above sea level. to the southwest and ending to the northeast. In the northwest, the peninsula is divided by a rift, in which the Bekadalen, the Jordandalen, the Dead Sea and the Red Sea form parts. The Dead Sea's surface is approximately 412 m above sea level. To the west of the reef are mountains and highlands that reach about 1,000 m above sea level.

Ural Mountains

The West Siberian plain is Asia's largest lowland, with 2.5 million km 2 lower than 120 m asl A large part of the area is characterized by moraine and glacial deposits. Marshlands are common. Permafrost, as in other northern Asia, provides special landforms. Via Kazakhstan's highland, the lowland crosses south into the Turans Plain with the drainless Aral Sea (approx. 55 m above sea level) and the Amu-Darja and Syr-Darja rivers. In the north, the West Siberian plain continues in the lowlands along the Arctic Ocean. It is interrupted by the Tajmyr peninsula's mountains. The West Siberian plain is flooded by Ob with tributaries and adjoins the valley of the Jenisei valley. Island of the Central Siberian Highlands lies the great valley of Lena. Most of Asia's lowland plains are linked to large rivers and especially to the delta regions. Largest are the river plains formed by Huang He, Chang Jiang, Ganges – Brahmaputra and Indus, but also those adjacent to Amur/Heilong Jiang, Mekong, Salween,

Much of Asia is a dry area. The deserts of the Arabian Peninsula Rub al-Khali and Nafud, Karakum and Kyzylkum on the Turan plain and Takla Makan in the Tarimba basin are the largest sand deserts. Gobi is, as the name implies, a stone desert. Salt lakes are common both on the high plateaus, e.g. Tuz Gölü in Turkey, and in the many streams with internal drainage. Lop Nor, "the wandering lake", now mostly a salt deposit, is located about 800 m above sea level. in the Tarimba basin.

Asia also belongs to the island world to the east, from the Kuriles to the five large and about 3,000 small Indonesian islands. Most of the islands are mountainous. Lowlands and plains are generally linked to rivers and coastal areas. Active volcanoes are common. There are about 60 in the Japanese island world (including Fuji, 3,776 m above sea level) and 17 in Java alone. On the Asian mainland, only Damavand (5,671 m asl) is active in Elburz, while Ararat (5,165 m ash) on the Armenian highlands and several other volcanoes in western Turkey are dormant or extinguished. An earthquake zone from Turkey to China meets in the east the earthquake zone from Kamchatka to Indonesia. The latter coincides with the subduction zones that also give rise to ocean tombs such as the Marian tomb, 11 034 m deep, the deepest in the world, and the Sundagraven, 7 455 m deep. Also in Asia are the Maldives, which are low coral islands, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Cyprus.

Soil and soils

Geologically, Asia forms part of the Eurasian continent and is characterized by an intricate geological structure and history. The continent has been built up by smaller continents, which have grown through new formation of continental crust at the edges. These small continents have then merged into a larger continent. Throughout the course, parts of the earth's crust have been folded and transformed into fold zones, orogens, with mountain ranges and arches as a result.

The cores of the small original continents form stable cratons, blocks of Precambrian bedrock. Three large cratons are expected, the Siberian (Angaria), the Indian and the Arabic. To these are more or less stabilized blocks, mainly in China. During the older Paleozoic, the Siberian kraton grew west and southwest. Only smaller parts of the cratons are shields, ie. rocks that are not covered by sedimentary rocks. The Siberian craton is marked by the Anabar and Aldan shields. Parts of the other cratons are trained as the North Chinese, Indian and Arab shields. The Urberg mountain consists of granites, gneisses, transformed slates and other rocks similar to those found in Scandinavia's indigenous mountains.

Since Cambrian, Asia has been exposed to a number of orogenesis, periods of deformation of the earth's crust. An orogenic or deformation zone was formed during the Bayali orogenesis in Late Precambrian and Cambrian times along the western and southern edges of the Siberian craton. During Cambrian and Ordovician, large parts of the cratons were covered by sea, and extensive layers of mainly limestone, but also of sandstone and clay shale were deposited.

During silur and devon, Caledonian orogens were formed in several places, e.g. in Tian Shan and Qilian Shan (formerly Nan Shan) as well as in southeastern China. Marine conditions prevailed in the riots, while the sea largely withdrew from the cratons, where red-colored sandstones and clay soils, salt layers and freshwater deposits formed.

During devon, carbon and perm, the hercynic (varicose) orogenesis resulted in deformed zones, which include the Ural Mountains, a belt from Tian Shan and Altaj to northeastern China, and a belt over Kunlun Shan. The deformation along the Ural Mountains is related to the fact that the Siberian continent collided with a continent consisting of North America and Europe, during which the two continents merged. The marine trajectories between the two continents disappeared almost completely. In vast areas, carbon bearing layers were deposited under carbon and perm.

During perms to older Cretaceous, large parts of Far India, the Sichote-Alin mountains along the Japanese lake, as well as the Verchojansk and Cherskij mountains in northeastern Siberia were folded. At the same time, sediment was deposited in the ground sea and in fresh water, under juries often with carbon formation.

The Tethys Sea, south of the European-Siberian-Chinese continent, shrank and eventually disappeared during Cretaceous as Africa with the Arabian Peninsula and the independent Indian plate drifted north. In the collision zone, the alpine orogen formed, which was active through tertiary and quaternary time. The riots extend from the Alps to the Himalayas. The unique height of the Himalayas has been considered due to the fact that two slices of continental crust here have been shot on top of each other. In the eastern Himalayas, the zone turns to the south and turns into the turmoil of the Pacific arches, which is characterized by active volcanism. The youngest tertiary and quaternary are characterized by tectonic movements, which led to elevation partly by the alpine orogen and arches, and partly by old androgenic streams, whereby e.g. The Ural Mountains, Tian Shan and Altaj have taken their present forms. The movements are still going full scale.

During the quarter, cold climate has prevailed. Due to low rainfall, only the area between the Ural Mountains and Tajmyr and smaller areas in the northeast have been iced. Particularly during the ice age, winds have deposited extensive and up to 500 m thick layers of lice in a belt from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Yellow Sea. The river plains in Iraq, the South Asian Peninsula and eastern China are filled with river sediments. Also large lowers and lowland areas, e.g. parts of the Arabian Peninsula and the Tarimba Basin (Xinjiang), have a surface of young sediments. In other areas the soil layer has been formed by weathering of the bedrock.


Mountain earth moons of varying types have a very wide distribution in Asia. in the Himalayas, eastern Siberia and Iran. Tundra earth moons occur in the northern parts of the continent. To the south, there are many areas with pod soles. Narrow and climate-conditioned belts with gray soils, black soils and chestnut brown soils then follow further south. Desert soils are found in large areas north of the Tian Shan and Himalayas, in the Arabian Peninsula and in the northwestern parts of India. In China there are large areas with brown soils, subtropical pod soles and lateritic soils. The latter also dominate the Indochinese peninsula.


What determines the main features of Asia's climatic conditions is the location and large surface area of ​​the Eurasian land mass. The most distinctive feature of the climate is its pronounced continentalism, which among other things. implies strong cooling in winter, mainly of the northern parts, and strong heating in summer. This creates a mighty winter high pressure south of Lake Baikal and a summer low pressure a little further south, and these in turn give rise to the monsoons, which are the basis for the seasonal division throughout South and East Asia. The topographical features of the continent also affect the climate, in particular the large east-west mountain range complex in the interior, which constitutes an effective barrier to air mass movements in the north-south direction. The orographic rainfall is high on the south side (Cherrapunji in Assam has an annual rainfall of 12,000 mm), while vast areas north of the mountains lie in the rain shadow and have a strong arid feel. Due to the large extent in the north-south, most climate types are represented in Asia.

The southernmost parts, the East Indian island world and the two major peninsula Främre and Far India, have humid tropical climates. However, only the East Indies, the Malacca Peninsula and southern Ceylon have rainfall throughout the year and receive tropical rainforest climate. The average temperature is 25–27 °C; The rainfall is on average 2,500 mm/year but can reach more than 4,000 mm in places. Tropical hurricanes occur frequently (in the Philippines 23 times a year) and are often accompanied by devastating storm surges. Most of Främre and Away India have rainy season and dry season, which is related to the summer monsoon from the sea in the south and the winter monsoon from the inland, and the climate is therefore often called monsoon climate.. Along the coasts, the rainfall is so great that rainforest can grow. In the interior it is savanna.

Warm temperate humid climates cover the northern parts of Front and Far India as well as throughout eastern China, South Korea and southern Japan. The rainfall falls in the summer as a result of the monsoon's humid air masses - except in a wide area in eastern China and southern Japan, which receive sufficient rainfall throughout the year. Another, diametrically located part of Asia also has a warm temperate climate but with winter precipitation, so-called Mediterranean climate. It is a belt from Turkey towards Afghanistan, where the mountain topography, however, modifies the temperature and precipitation conditions.

Cold-tempered humid climate occupies very large areas between 50 and 70 ° north latitude. Here, winters are characterized by lower temperatures than normal for latitude, especially in eastern Siberia, where the difference between the warmest and coldest months of the year amounts to 60 °C, and a minimum temperature of −69 °C has been measured (in Verchojansk). The rainfall falls in the western part throughout the year, in the east in the summer. Isolated mountain areas to the south have the same climate type, e.g. in inner Turkey, northern China and northern Japan.

Tundra climate - a polar climate where the summer temperature is lower than +10 °C and where trees do not grow - is found in a narrow zone along the Arctic Ocean. Even the highest mountain areas have a corresponding climate, e.g. Tibet, the Himalayas and Kunlun Shan. The remaining areas in Asia are markedly dry and have desert and steppe climate. Two large such areas are in the temperate zone. One includes the Gobi Desert and Takla Makan, and the other is around Lake Aral. Warm desert and steppe climates are found in southwestern Asia, from northwestern India to southern Iran as well as throughout the Arabian Peninsula, and are climatic regarding the continuation of North Africa's large arid belt.

Plant Life

Farthest in the north, the Arctic tundra rules with giants and marshes (see also the Arctic). A little further south there is a mosaic of forest tundra that gradually turns into taiga. The forest boundary is formed in Western Siberia by an eastern subspecies of spruce, further east by Siberian larch and Dahuric larch (Laʹrix gmeliʹnii). In central Siberia, at the mouth of the Chatanga River, lies the tree line at 72 ° 37 ′ north latitude, the northernmost in the world.

Asia Plant Life

The tajgan, with spruces, pine trees, larches and fir trees, and deciduous trees such as birch, alar and willow, form a wide belt, in central Siberia from about 45 to 70 ° north latitude. The area is characterized by very cold winters with prolonged snow cover and relatively warm but short summers. The vegetation period is 3–5 months and the annual rainfall is 350–700 mm. Pod oil soils dominate, and about 2/3 of the zone is in the area of ​​permafrost. As in the tundra zone, large areas are swamped with marshes. The flora is uniform and fairly poor in species. Coniferous forest also occurs on mountain ranges further south, for example in Altaj.

Summer green deciduous forests occur in Western Siberia as a mosaic between the coniferous forest in the north and the steppe in the south, but especially in the temperate parts of East Asia, that is, in central and northeastern China and in most of Japan. They are richer than deciduous forests in Europe and North America, but they are often the same genus as there, including oaks, chestnuts, elm, ashes, walnut, maples and lime trees. In addition, East Asian genera such as cork trees (Phellodeʹndron), goddess trees (Ailaʹnthus) and pagoda trees (Soʹphora ).

Some genera, such as hickory, catkins and tulip trees (Liriodeʹndron), occur in East Asia and North America but disappeared from Europe during the ice ages. Many of our ornamental plants come from the East Asian deciduous forest area, such as roses, cherries, lilacs, forsythias and sprouts. To the north and in the mountains, there is a significant element of conifers, in Japan, for example, the endemic species of cryptomeria and solar spring (Sciadopiʹtys verticiʹllata). Above the forest border in Japan and especially in China there are rich alps.

In southern Japan and southeastern and south-central China, the summer-green deciduous forests gradually change into evergreen forests, with many species of oaks and related families, as well as representatives of the families stock plants, tea plants, magnolia plants, witch hazel plants. Among the conifers are strange living fossils such as ginkgo and Chinese sequoia. Bamboo plays a big role and can be dominant locally. China is believed to have about 30,000 species of seed plants, or almost three times as many as Europe. In the lowland area, natural vegetation has to a large extent been replaced by cultivated land.

The Pontic-Central Asian region encompasses vast areas of steppe, peninsula and desert, from the southern Russian Federation and the countries east of the Caspian Sea to Pamir, Tibet and Gobi. In the loose soil areas of the southern Russian Federation there are grass steppes, often dominated by spring grass and with rich spring flowering of, among other things, onion plants. Iranian highlands and adjacent areas largely dominated by steppes and semi-deserts with thorny kuddväxter in among other genera vedlar, Cousi'nia and tuvrispar (Acantho'limon). Despite the arid touch, it is a rich area (about 9,000 species of seed plants in Iran). The high plateaus Pamir, Tibet and Gobi are largely desert-rich and very poor in species, with sparse vegetation of grasses, amaranth plants and moths, among others. Salt-affected areas, such as the lowlands north of the Caspian Sea, are characterized by species that in Europe only appear as beach plants, such as glaze, soda and saltmold.

In the eastern Himalayas (Sikkim), between 900 and 2,000 meters in height, dense mountain rainforests grow with both tropical elements such as bamboo and palm trees and temperate genera such as walnut, Castanoʹpsis and Lithocaʹrpus. The flora is rich in often epiphytic ferns and orchids.

Higher up follows a coniferous forest zone with, among other things, the Hemlock species Tsuʹga dumoʹsa. In the cloud zone (approximately 2,600–4,000 m above sea level) rhododendrons predominate. Above the tree line are rich alps with vivas, spiers and mountain poppies, or mountain heaths with low bushes of rhododendrons, barberry and juniper. On the alpine level grows pillowforming species including philistines and Draba. The vegetation limit is approximately 5 700 m above sea level.

In large parts of Southeast Asia there are rainforests and monsoon forests, which are among the world's richest ecosystems. Important families are screw palms, ginger plants, mulberries and dipterocarp plants. Among the epiphytes are many orchids (in Thailand more than 1,000 species) and the insect- trapping pitchers. Pepper, cinnamon, mango and breadfruit originate from the area, probably also sugar cane and coconut palm. In drier parts, for example in the interior of Thailand, the forests are scarier and leafless during part of the dry season and here growsteak.

In the Philippines, Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea there are some Australian elements such as eucalyptus, on mountain tops representatives of northern, temperate genera such as buttercups and starlings.

Along the Malabar coast in Ancient India there is tropical rainforest with a large element of palm trees and bamboo species. Large parts of the Indian peninsula have savanna-like vegetation, including acacias and other trees in the pea family. Here there is a certain floristic relationship with tropical Africa. In the northwest there are desert areas. Most important among the tropical plants in tropical Asia are rice, in drier areas also millet and dry.


Animal geographically, Asia is not a naturally distinct entity. At least three of the world's six fauna regions are represented, of which only the Oriental is completely housed in Asia (compare animal geography). The Himalayas provide an effective dispersal barrier (topographic and climatological) and form a boundary between the Palearctic region in the north and the Oriental region in the south. The southern parts of the Arabian Peninsula belong to the Ethiopian fauna region, while the Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda Islands and the Moluccas form a transitional area to the Australian region. Few animal groups are endemic to Asia. However, this includes gibbones, ghost animals, fur flutters, tip squirrels, leaf birds, angular salamanders, Big-headed turtle, gavial, earless monitor lizard and uropeltidae.

Asia Wildlife

Along the nutritious Arctic Ocean coast you will find colonies of walrus, bays and great seals. There was also the now extinct Steller's sickle; furthermore there nestle speck mountain pig, gulls and terns.

The majority of vertebrates on the treeless tundra in the north are only summer visitors, who benefit from the rapid but short-lived production of insects, especially mosquitoes, and vegetation. Among the summer visitors are many waders, geese, pockets, fairy tales, pure, Siberian snow sheep (Ovis nivicola) and polar hares. This also forces the predators, such as mountain fox, wolf, lobster, mountain owl and hunting falcon, to move spring and autumn. Of the vertebrates, it is basically only herbivorous voles and lemmings who, by being active under the snow, manage to winter on the tundra.

The Tajgan, the broad boreal coniferous forest belt, has many animals in common with the Nordic coniferous forests. Here you will find brown bear, wolf, lox, red fox, moose and beaver, but also flying squirrels, several species of squirrels and sable. Typical Asian breeding birds are forest chickens, owls, beckons, thrushes, mites and field sparrows.

Lake Baikal, which is very old, has developed a peculiar fauna, especially of crustaceans and other invertebrates. About 3/4 of the species are endemic to the lake; endemic vertebrates include hawk seals and two fish families.

The summer-green forests in northeastern and central China, in Korea and Japan show a mixed fauna with representatives from different regions. Here you will find brown bear, red deer, elk and wild boar, but also collar bear, Siberian tiger, leopard, musk and gor. Japanese macaque is the world's northernmost monkey. Mound dog, sika deer and david deer are initially restricted to the area. The last fragmentary populations of david deer were probably extirpated in the wild probably shortly after World War II, but are now being reintroduced in China from zoos in Europe. Silk butterfly, one of the few insects that humans have domesticated, is native to eastern China.

Asia's vast steppe and desert areas are dominated by burrowing and dry-adapted species. The structure of the steppe soils is formed by burrowing sizzles, marmots and other rodents, which mix the soil layers. Originally, carnivores were plentiful, but the majority were almost extinct. The world's last wild horse, Przewalski's horse, died in the wild in 1968 but is being reintroduced from zoos to Mongolia, among others. For half a donkey and camel remains only small populations. Saiga antelope has become locally numerous again after conservation. Stairs, flying chickens, larch, steppe eagle,eagle noise, steppe hawk, evening falcon and tatar falcon are typical birds in the area. Snakes and lizards in particular are numerous. They mostly live on rodents and the most common small creeps, for example grasshoppers, beetles (mostly black beetles) and spiders.

The Himalayas, Tian Shan and the Tibetan high plateau are home to yak, chiru, Himalayatahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), taki, blue sheep and argaliphas. Among the predators are the brown bear, wolf and the endangered snow leopard. Chicken birds and rose finches are abundantly represented. The aforementioned mountain areas are also said to be the abode of the Yetin or the Snowman, whose existence has not yet been scientifically proven despite the investigations of several expeditions.

Himalayan vegetation rich south and east slopes are rich. Here you will find cat bear and giant panda, among other things.

In the monsoon forest regions of India and Southeast Asia, the fauna has been decimated by millennia of human activities. Here are several ox animals, all of which are now few: water buffalo (which domestically spread throughout the tropics), banteng, gaur and kouprey. Furthermore, you will find languras (Hindu sacred monkeys), gibbones, lorries (semi-monkeys), Indian elephant (see elephants ), wild boar, myrrh, mint, ax deer and nilgau. Among the numerous predators are tiger, leopard, asian wild dog, golden shawl, striped hyena, lip bear and several viverrides. The area is bird-rich and also offers important wintering sites for North and Central Asian birds. Pheasants, storks, vultures, bee-eaters, screams, bulbils and sunbirds are abundantly represented. In Indian rivers, crocodiles, gavial and two species of river dolphins are found, all of which have decimated populations.

The rainforests at the far south-east are, second to the Amazon, the world's richest biome. An extremely varied vegetation, artificially and structurally, gives way to many animal species. In the tree crown layer is found orangutans, langurs (leaf monkeys) and athletic gibbons, squirrels, hornbills, a beard growing, leaf birds, drongo and numerous butterflies, including bird butterflies. Surprisingly, many animal forms have developed the ability to slip between trees, such as fur flutters, squirrels, several lizards, a frog genus and a snake genus. Spökdjuren, which are night-active, endemic semi-apes, hunt small insects both in the trees and on the ground. On or near the ground house several cat animals (including tree leopard), scabra paper, Malay bear, Javanese horn and Sumatran rhino (both nearly extinct), bearded pigs (Sus barbatus ), lizards, jeweled claws, pheasants, numerous poisonous species (of which few are poisonous). (see jaw droppings) and peculiar insects, such as wandering leaves. In Borneo's coastal forests lives the peculiar nose boiler.

Natural Resources

Permafrost, mountains and rainfall mean that Asia, despite its size, has a small agricultural area. The most important cultivation lands are the chestnut and brown soils in Kazakhstan, the brown soils that are trained on the loose soils in northern China and the alluvial soils in the river valleys, especially in delta regions such as Huang Hes and Chang Jiangs, according to Countryaah.

The natural vegetation is always a resource. In addition, some parts of it are economically important. The tundra in the north and the temperate grasslands of central Asia are important pastures for reindeer and horses and sheep respectively. The forest assets consist of coniferous forest, tajga, in Siberia, monsoon forest with teak and hall as the most important tree species in i.a. India and Southeast Asia as well as tropical rainforests in Southeast Asia and Indonesia. The rainforest is shrinking rapidly; 30% were cut down between 1960 and 1990. Larger contiguous areas of rainforest now exist only in Indonesia and Malaysia. Different species of bamboo are an important resource in Southeast and East Asia. Bamboo is used, among other things. for household utensils, furniture, pulp and scaffolding and for food.

Asia Natural Resources

Both monsoon and rainforests are prone to deforestation. Demand for timber and land for, among other things, oil palm plantations and sweat farming are the cause. The decomposition leads to both plant and animal species being eradicated and partly to soil erosion. This is also very large in agricultural areas such as Kazakhstan, in the valley of Huang Hes, especially in the field of loose soil, and in India. The erosion leads to direct destruction of cultivable land, and partly to increased amounts of sludge in the rivers, which raises the river bottom and floods as a result. In areas with steep topography, logging on a large scale also leads to landslides becoming common. Furthermore, the rainwater will quickly drain off the surface rather than penetrate into the ground and replenish the groundwater. Surface drainage rapidly increases the flow of watercourses, which can result in floods, such as in Bangladesh. The increased amount of sludge also causes dams to be filled again.

Countries in Asia
  1. Afghanistan
  2. Armenia
  3. Azerbaijan
  4. Bahrain
  5. Bangladesh
  6. Bhutan
  7. Brunei
  8. Cambodia
  9. China
  10. Cyprus
  11. East Timor
  12. Georgia
  13. India
  14. Indonesia
  15. Iran
  16. Iraq
  17. Israel
  18. Japan
  19. Jordan
  20. Kazakhstan
  21. Kuwait
  22. Kyrgyzstan
  23. Laos
  24. Lebanon
  25. Malaysia
  26. Maldives
  27. Mongolia
  28. Nepal
  29. North Korea
  30. Myanmar
  31. Oman
  32. Pakistan
  33. Philippines
  34. Qatar
  35. Saudi Arabia
  36. Singapore
  37. South Korea
  38. Sri Lanka
  39. Syria
  40. Tajikistan
  41. Taiwan
  42. Thailand
  43. Turkey
  44. Turkmenistan
  45. United Arab Emirates
  46. Uzbekistan
  47. Vietnam
  48. Yemen

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