Terrain shapes and bedrock
Bangladesh's terrain forms are characterized by the many
water-rich rivers and their dense river arms and huge delta
formations, which are constantly growing. The most
significant rivers are the Ganges and Brahmaputra, with the
common estuary arm Padma. Also important are Tista in the
north and Meghna in the south. Powerful alluvial layers
cover the bedrock and consist of younger, light brown soils
and older humus-containing and dark clays.
Large parts of the country are floodplains and low
plateau areas. Among them are: Brahmaputra's floodplains,
known for their devastating floods, and Meghna's river
basin. The central Bengal delta comprises large lake areas.
On the coast of the Bay of Bengal there is a belt of young,
immature delta formations with the Sundarbans forest area.
Slightly higher parts are found between Ganges and
Brahmaputra in the northwest and in the Sylhet Hills on the
border with the Khasi Mountains in the northeast, which
reach 330 m above sea level. The completely divergent nature
has the wooded Chittagong hill region, which spreads towards
Burma in the southeast.
COUNTRYAAH, Bangladesh has a monsoon tropical rainforest climate with
high humidity and high, seasonal rainfall. In April the
temperature reaches maximum values of 33-36 ～ C, during the
rainy season 27 ～ C, and in November - March it is on
average 18-20 ～ C.
The rainfall amounts to more than 1,500 mm per year,
except in some parts of the west, while large areas get
2,500 mm and the Sylhet region in the northeast 3 750-55 mm
per year. The southwest monsoon brings rain during June -
October, while the winter monsoon brings down dry air from
the interior to the north during November - March.
Tropical hurricanes often hit the area in early summer.
The water in the Bay of Bengal can then be pushed up to 6 m
above normal level. As a result, severe losses in human life
and property are caused in the low delta areas.
Plant-and animal life
Bangladesh's area is currently covered by 15% of forest,
while 2/3 is agricultural land. The whole of Bangladesh was
originally covered by lush and often swampy forests. The
hinterland was occupied by transitional forms between
tropical rainforest and monsoon forest. Coastal areas, which
are divided by the river delta and islands, are covered by
mangrove forests and are still to a large extent.
Wildlife is rich, albeit reduced due to human landscape
transformation. About 200 mammal species and about 750 bird
species are known from Bangladesh. Samar deer, Indian
Mouthjak, jackal, lip bear and rhesus monkeys have a wide
spread. Indian elephant (about 250 specimens), tiger,
leopard, (wild) water buffalo and guy are now few. Barasinga
(swamp deer), Malay bear and collar bear are almost extinct.
In Brahmaputra there are ganges dolphin and gavial.
Bangladesh had five national parks in 2009. There were an
additional seven protected areas, three of which were
located in Sundarbans and, above all, were used to protect