Terrain shapes and bedrock
Countryaah-ABCDE, Cameroon is for the most part a highland with the
exception of the coastal plains within the Atlantic coast
and the area in the far north by Lake Chad. To the south, a
plateau with an average height of less than 300 m above sea
level extends from the southern border to the Sanaga River.
In the central part of Cameroon, a region where the land
surface gradually rises to the north extends to about 2,000
m above sea level. with the Adamaoua Massif as the highest.
To the north of this highland, a plain descends to the Chad
Creek at about 240 m above sea level. Only the Mandara
Mountains form an elevation here. A fourth topographic
region consists of the mountains within the coastline to the
north, where the Bamboutes Mountains rise 2,740 m above sea
level. and the volcanically active Cameroon mountain reaches
4,070 m above sea level.
The bedrock consists in the interior of granite, gneiss
and crystalline slate, while the coastal belt is built up of
Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks. A northeast –
southwest, approximately 100 km wide zone is limited by
faults on both sides and forms a burial pit. Here,
reductions and elevations have taken place, and in this way,
basaltic volcanic rocks have filled the area from the
innermost part of the Gulf of Guinea to the northeast.
Cameroon soil moons are mostly of a leached, lateritic type.
The main river is Sanaga, which flows into the Atlantic.
All of Cameroon has a tropical climate with annual
average temperatures from 23 °C to 28 °C, depending on the
The rainy season on the coast lasts from April to
November and gives about 3,800 mm/year. In the interior,
about 1,500 mm falls during two rainy periods, May – June
and October – November, while the rainiest period in the
north falls in June – September and produces 400 mm of rain.
Rainiest are the western highlands, which receive 10,000 mm
/ year in May – October.
The flora is rich; it probably includes more than 8,000
species. At the northern estuaries are mangroves, dominated
by the genus Rhizoʹphora. In the lowlands and
closest to the coast, the natural vegetation is constantly
green rain forest of various types. Characteristic trees are
Gilbertiodeʹndron species and Cynomeʹtra
haʹnkei et al. pea plants, Sacogloʹttis gaboneʹnsis
(the Houmiriaceae family) and Lophiʹra alaʹta
(the family and nana plants). At the beaches and at times
flooded, the palm tree Raʹphia viniʹfera and the
genus Uaʹpaca(family turf plants) common. In a
broad transition zone between rainforest and savanna, in
areas with dry periods, there are more or less deciduous
forests. Here are Ceʹltis species (family of almond
plants) and afara (Terminaʹlia supeʹrba; family of
white mangrove plants) important. Among herbs are marked
stripe plants and ginger plants.
The northern half of the country is dominated by
savannah. The tree saw is built up of grass species,
especially of Andropogon and related families.
Important trees are monkey bread trees,
Bosweʹllia species (the family incense tree) and
Prosoʹpis africaʹna (and other acacia relatives in the
pea family). Palm trees grow on humid savannahs, like the
Phoenix [fe: ʹ-] reclinaʹta. Gallery
forests follow the larger rivers with species of the genus
Uaʹpaca, Viʹtex (the family of verba
plants) and screw palms. The dry savannah in the north has
sparse, spiny bushes and small trees, such as Balaniʹtes
aegyptiʹaca (family of thistle plants), ZiʹziphusSpecies
(family of fallow plants) and acacias (Acaʹcia aʹlbida
are very common and widespread).
In the Chad Lake basin with periodic floods, there are
belts of leaf reed and papyrus. In the Cameroon Mountains
and some other significantly lower mountains, there are
mountain forests, now often displaced by cultivations, with
e.g. St. John's wort, the spiny Macaraʹnga occidentaʹlis
(family of thorns) and in sheltered locations tree worms
like Maraʹttia and Cyaʹthea. Around 2,000
meters above sea level. there is moist cloud forest rich in
vines and epiphytes, i.a. lichens. At the top of the
Cameroon mountain is treeless afroalpine vegetation, similar
to that in East Africa.
The species richness is large and varies according to the
vegetation type. There are 22 species of primates and as
many species of antelopes.
In the rainforest area, i.a. gorilla, chimpanzee, drill,
mandrill, several species of colobus monkeys and monkeys,
further diving antelopes, hippopotamus, rhino birds,
kingfishers, turacos, chameleons, frogs (many species of
western tree frogs) and a large variety of insects,
In the savannah areas there are many species of
antelopes, Anubis baba (Paʹpio anuʹbis),
African elephant, lion, leopard, hyenas, jackals, African
buffalo, giraffe, mouse birds, weavers, African lungfish and
a great wealth of grasshoppers and termites.
In 2011, Cameroon had twelve national parks, mainly in
the savannah areas, as well as several large fauna reserves,
also in rainforest areas. In 2011, the total area under some
form of nature protection was approximately 10% of
Cameroon's total land area.