Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Djibouti is located in the eastern part of the large
tectonic lowering area known as the Afar sink and mainly
comprising eastern Ethiopia. The Afarsenk is a direct
continuation of the Red Sea bottom, which is a northern
continuation of the East African rift system, which is
bounded on Ethiopia's highlands by a marked north-south
fault slope. In Djibouti, a Mittoceanic crack line goes up
on the land surface, as is the case in Iceland. The bedrock
in Djibouti consists predominantly of young volcanic rocks,
which are penetrated by numerous cracks and faults in the
Three landform regions can be distinguished in the
Djibouti Coastal plain is a belt of varying width
within the coastline. It is less than 200 meters above sea
level. and reaches in line with the Tadjouraviken, which
cuts 100 km into the country, far west. Plateaus
made up of lava beds are another landform type that occurs
in the country's southern and central parts, reaching 300 to
1,500 m above sea level. The plateaus are mostly surrounded
by lowered portions, which form a distinctive tomb
topography but also plains and lakes. Some of the lakes are
deep depressions, e.g. Lake Assal (155 m uh) and Lake Abbé,
which is on the border with Ethiopia. In the northern part
of the country there is a third region, a mountain
country that in Moussa Ali reaches 2,021 m above sea
The land surface of Djibouti is marked by the of large
hot sandfields, but also rock cliffs and deep ravines. A
number of streams with sandy bottom are found in the
mountain region; some are temporary or have underground
races. They constitute important water resources in the hot
and rain-poor country.
Djibouti has a desert climate with extreme heat,
averaging 30 °C; daily maximum is 29 °C in January and 43
°C in July.
Passage and monsoon winds blow in over the country but
cause very little rainfall, generally 100–200 mm per year,
500 mm in the mountain area. From the Arabian Peninsula the
wind comes parallel to the coast, sometimes as a hot and dry
wind, chamsin. The southwest wind that enters Ethiopia and
gives rain to the highlands during the rainy season also
does not cause much rainfall, as Djibouti lies in the rain
The Earth Moon is predominantly desert soil.
Plant-and animal life
Nine tenths of the land is covered by desert with very
sparse vegetation, mainly consisting of low-growing, thorny
shrubs and some grassy grasses.
The animals are adapted to a great extent without water.
Here, for example, beisa (Oʹryx gazeʹlla beisa), a
subspecies of antelope species oryx with long, spear-shaped
horns, gazelle (Gazeʹlla soemmerriʹngi), caracal
(desert), golden shawl, striped hyena and spotted hyena.
Among the birds are African ostrich, ear-owl, Arabian
staircase (Ardeoʹtis aʹrabs) and several species of
In the mountains there are smaller tree-lined areas with,
among other things. a tree-shaped one, Juniʹperus
proceʹra. Along the coast there are rich coral reefs
and rich bird life.
In 2010 Djibouti had a national park, Forêt du Day, with
among other things. an endemic frankolin. In practice,
however, the park has no greater protection, which is why
the forest area is shrinking.