Terrain shapes and bedrock
From a 300-700 m high, cross-steep west side, the upper
side of each island often slopes steeply to the southeast
until it dives below the sea surface in a slightly sloping
slope. Slęttaratindur (882 m asl) is the highest point in
the Faroe Islands.
During the early Tertiary period (approximately 65–35
million years ago, dark basaltic lava was pulsing outwardly
across a lowland from disintegrating cracks. Each lava
blanket became tens of meters thick. Volcanism continued
rhythmically until the series was 1 km thick, the land
surface was continuously lowered, for a couple of years the
upper surface of the soil became weathered, and plants
migrated in. It was quite warm, deciduous trees dominated,
and magnolia was common. which became 15–25 m of sandstone,
carbonate and refractory clay, until they were buried under
2 km of basalt.
Millions of years later, part of this huge lava plateau
was raised about 1-3 km. The waves of the North Atlantic
eroded until the present Faroe Islands remained on the
elevated block. Today we see the edge of the individual lava
quilts as dark bands in the coastal slopes and as steps in
The Faroe Islands have a cold-tempered, humid climate
with a strong maritime feel, as the islands are surrounded
by the warm Norwegian current. Winters are mild, 3–4 °C,
and summers cool, around 11 °C.
Precipitation falls for about 250 days a year and amounts
to 1,600 mm, but the local variation due to the topography
is between 800 and 2,700 mm. Snow falls on average only for
45 days and remains only in the higher parts. Humidity is
high and fog is abundant. West winds prevail and often
achieve storm strength, especially in winter.
Plant-and animal life
The plants and animals of the Faroe Islands have
colonized the islands since the last ice age and are of
northwestern European origin with few Arctic features. Many
species came as free passengers with humans or have
benefited from her transforming activities (breeding, sheep
husbandry, etc.). Cultural influence is thus strong. As is
usually the case on islands, there are relatively few
species in the Faroe Islands; endemic species are missing.
The Faroe Islands make a uniform and green impression.
The vegetation is dominated by grasslands, which at higher
altitude transform into poorer mountain vegetation. Rice
trees with heather and blueberry are common, while natural
bush and tree vegetation is lacking. Plantations with mainly
overseas conifers are found on several islands (a total of
about 100 ha). There are few major wetland areas, but even
more recently, local peat deposits were important as fuel
sources. The most fertile vegetation is found in the bird
mountains and in the numerous ravines and rock crevices,
where the grazing sheep do not reach. The cultivated fields
(usually about 5% of the area of the Faroe Islands), usually
cultivated with stone farms, also have rich vegetation. The
Faroe Islands have about 400 species of vascular plants,
about 400 species of mosses and about 250 species of lichen.
The productive, fish-rich marine areas around the Faroe
Islands form the basis for large numbers of seabirds, which
nest in the steep bird mountains. The most conspicuous
species are three-tailed gull, puffin, herringbone,
stormbird and seabird. Other species are large-lab, smaller
lira, and storm whales. Seabird fishing (including eggs and
chicks) used to be an important source of nutrition, among
other things. on Mykines, which is the most famous bird pay.
On land, the beach treasure (the national bird of the Faroe
Islands) is common, as are eiders along the coasts. Around
the countryside you will see rock pigeons, starlings, gray
sparrows and a Faroese breed of beasts. Stone falcon, which
is the only bird of prey species, is rare. About 270 bird
species have been found in the Faroe Islands, of which about
50 breed regularly.
Mammals on land include (in addition to pets) house mice,
brown rats and forest hares (introduced in 1855 from
Norway). Marine mammals include gray seals and gate
selection. Of the latter, a few thousand are caught
annually. In the few lakes and larger watercourses there are
char, salmon trout, salmon, eel and big spike. Snakes and
amphibians are missing. The insect fauna is poor in species
(only about 1,000 species), and several groups are
completely missing (eg ants, butterflies and mosquitoes).
Land snails, snails and earthworms are well represented. The
freshwater fauna is poor in contrast to the marine and rocky