COUNTRYAAH, Georgia has predominantly (about 85%) mountainous terrain
and high altitude contrasts at small distances. Northern
Georgia includes parts of the Caucasus mountain ranges with
peaks such as Shchara (5,064 m above sea level) and the
extinct Kazbek volcano (Georgian Qazbegi; 5,033 m above sea
level). In the next terrain zone to the south, lowlands
dominate. Kolchida's fertile plains along the Black Sea.
East along the Kuras (Georgian Mtkvari) river system, a
plateau is surrounded by mountains on all sides and mostly
covered by loose soil. The southernmost zone consists of
mountain ranges and plateaus that belong to the Lesser
In West Georgia, the climate is subtropical with
1,000-2,000 mm of precipitation per year, in the east,
precipitation is 400-700 mm per year. The soil shows great
variation with fertile red soils but also pod sun and saline
The composition of the plant world follows the regional
variation of the climate. Forests and shrubs cover one third
of the total area, while large areas comprise sheep pasture.
In the west there are lush forests with eg. oaks, oriental
book, caucasian pine, real chestnut, linden and al. The
under vegetation consists, among other things, of of
rhododendrons and hazel. The forests have a rich wildlife
with larger predators and many bird species. There are
plenty of fish in the rivers.
There were five national parks in Georgia in 2008. The
largest was Tusheti (1,183 km2). Another 26 major
nature conservation areas were located in the country. The
protected areas cover about 25% of the country's area.
In January 2016, the ICC decided to allow its prosecutor
to investigate possible war crimes and crimes against
humanity during and up to the Georgia-Russia war in August
2008. That same month, the Council of Europe's Commissioner
for Human Rights announced that Georgia's judiciary had a
significant political blow. While for the same violations it
gave conditional or unconditional judgments to members of
the opposition parties, it did impose fines or liens on
members of the ruling party.
In April 2016, the Constitutional Court issued a ruling
that legislation giving the intelligence services unlimited
access to telecommunications operators' networks to carry
out surveillance was in violation of the Constitution. The
court also ordered the government to amend the legislation
by March 2017. During the October general election campaign,
a number of private conversations between opposition leaders
and their staff were made public. The purpose was to
influence the election result. The intelligence service
refused to be the source of the secret footage.
In July, the EU and Georgia signed an association
agreement, according to which the regime would receive DKK
100 million annually. € from the EU, in return for
implementing a number of human rights and legal security
The October 2016 parliamentary elections became a
landslide victory for Georgia's Dream, going 67 seats up to
115. The party thus had an absolute majority. UNM returned
19 seats to 27. The rest of the opposition was almost wiped
out. Election observers reported that the election had been
predominantly fair despite assaults on a number of
opposition politicians and irregularities in the vote count
in 1/3 of the polling stations.
Security forces in more remote areas of the country
continued to use torture against suspects or even killings.
The cases were not often investigated because witnesses were
afraid to stand up because of the fear of reprisals.
Georgia - Tbilisi
Tbilisi, capital of Georgia; 1. 1 million residents (2018). Tbilisi is
located on the river Kura. In addition to its administrative functions for the
country, the city also plays a crucial role as an educational, commercial and
industrial city. However, the multifaceted industry, where special production of
transport equipment and machine tools was built up during the Soviet period, is
facing a comprehensive restructuring. The city has a university (founded 1918).
The old town below the Nariqala fortress on the river's right bank has several
important building monuments, including. Sionica Cathedral, originally from the
500s and 600s.
Settlement has been proven as early as the 3000s BC However, the city
probably emerged as a trading center between Asia and Europe during the second
half of the first millennium BC. (compare Iberians ).
During the 500s AD Tbilisi became the capital of the eastern Georgian kingdom
of Kartli, and its position was further consolidated during the 12th and 13th
centuries. Heavily ravaged by Turkish and Iranian people from the 1300s to the
1700s, Tbilisi was incorporated in Russia by Russia in 1801 as the
administrative and military center of the Georgian, from 1846 the Tbilisi
government. With the introduction of the Russian Empire followed
industrialization and the establishment of rail links. At the end of the 19th
century, Tbilisi was the scene of conflicts between a Georgian proletariat, a
Russian political ruling class and an Armenian economic upper class.
After being in the center of an independent Georgian republic for a few short
years from 1918, Tbilisi became the capital of the Soviet Republic of Georgia in
1921. Since 1991, it is again the independent capital of Georgia.