Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Ghana is a low lying area where no part exceeds 900 m
above sea level. More than 60% of the land area is drained
by the main river Volta, which includes the artificial Lake
Volta. The Mouhoun (Black Volta) tributary to the west forms
the border with the Ivory Coast, and Nakambe (White Volta)
comes from Burkina Faso to the north. The coastline
delimitates alternately low sand bays (mainly in the east
and west) and mountainous headlands, which consist of
Devonian rocks (in the central part). Large areas with
younger rocks are found in Volta's delta, which is
surrounded by lagoons and marshlands, as well as in the
country's southwest corner.
Large parts of Ghana consist of Paleozoic rocks, such as
clay, sandstone and limestone, which form a basin in the
central area. Its elevated stripes appear as narrow plateaus
of 300–700 m above sea level, outwardly bounded by marked
slopes. Along the eastern border there are folded
Precambrian rocks, which include. forms the scenic
Akwapim-Togori ridges (885 m above sea level). To the south
of these, the Accras plains are spread on a foundation of
very old gneiss rocks, which in many places go in the day as
inselbergs. In the southwest, northwest and north there are
large pen planar surfaces formed in Precambrian bedrock and
now cut through deep erosion in cracks so that flat heights,
separated by valleys, have been formed.
A great diversity of earth moons is found; lateritic in
the south and of the black soil type in the north, usually
with a low humus content.
Ghana has a tropical climate, which is strongly
influenced by the interaction between the dry, hot and dusty
air masses of the Sahara (harmattan) and the maritime,
rain-fed air masses of the South Atlantic (monsoon). The
middle parts of the country, with savanna vegetation, have
rainy season that culminates in August – September and dry
season in November – March. The annual rainfall is about
1,200 mm. In southern Ghana there are two rainy times and
two dry times.
The temperature conditions show less variation than the
precipitation. The annual average temperature is 26-29 °C.
The daytime amplitude is in the coastal range 6–8 °C and in
the north 7–17 °C. The warmest month is March, the coldest
January, along the coast of August.
With the exception of the eastern coastal region, the
southern third of the country was originally covered by
forests, while the northern two-thirds naturally carry
savanna. On the coast around Accra and east, where the
rainfall is clearly below 1,000 mm per year, there is a dry,
human-influenced bush water with high grass, and dry- and
fire-resistant succulents and small trees. Here, large
termite stacks are conspicuous. At the far south-west, where
precipitation exceeds 1,600 mm per year, the natural
vegetation is evergreen tropical rainforest, while the
forest further north, up to the Ashanti Plateau and in a
smaller area along the border with Togo is partly deciduous.
Of the originally 80,000–100,000 km 2 of rain
and moisture forests, mainly due to intensive burning, there
is now practically nothing outside the reserve for forest
production, which amounts to about 20,000 km2.
The lack of arable land causes people to sweat and grow in
the forest reserves, so the area with closed forest is in
practice clearly smaller. The savannah in the middle and
northern parts of the country is a tree and bush water,
which gets drier and sparse towards the north. In the
southern parts of the savannah you can see, among other
things. monkey bread tree, in the northern parts various
acacias. Along the rivers there are often gallery forests.
Ghana has a total of about 3,300 species of veneerogamer.
Ghana, by West African dimensions, is rather poor. In
addition, many animals have been hunted hard, and others are
decreasing in number as biotope destruction occurs. Of
mammals, however, the country houses a rich primate fauna.
There are chimpanzees, three species of colobus monkeys,
four species of marcats of the genus Cercopithecus,
house monkey, black-footed mangabab (Cercoceʹbus
ateʹrrimus), anubis baby (Paʹpio anuʹbis),
red baboon (Papio paʹpio), potto and two species of
galagos. Furthermore, African elephant (ivory used to be a
major export, so only a few animals remain today), lions,
leopards, hyenas, African buffalo, hippopotamus, forest pigs
and several species of antelope.
More than 720 species of birds have been observed in
Ghana; kingfishers, bee-eaters, turakos, rhino birds and
sunbirds are typical groups. All three species of crocodiles
in Africa are found here, but they are now all unusual.
In Ghana there were seven national parks in 2010. Among
these, Bia in the southwest is a rainforest area with
chimpanzees and many other higher primates. Bui on the
border with the Ivory Coast is a swamp area with, among
other things. hippopotamus and many antelopes, while Mole in
the northwest has tree water with several monkeys, lions,
leopards, elephants and antelopes. Just over 5% of the
country's area is covered by some form of nature protection.