Terrain shapes and bedrock
Within a limited area, Guatemala has both coastal plains
along two oceans and a highland area between those reaching
more than 4,000 meters above sea level. The Central
Highlands are Guatemala's most important region, and it
includes two parallel parts.
One, Sierra Madre, travels throughout the
country in an east-west direction and continues into El
Salvador and Honduras. Its southern part is an impressive
chain of younger eruptive rocks with 33 volcanoes. Tajumulco
(4,220m asl), Tacaná (4,093m ash), Acatenango (3,976m ash)
and Santa María (3,772m ash). The latter, like Fuego and
Pacaya, are in constant activity.
The second branch of Altos Cuchumatanes goes
north-west and is divided into several chains and plateaus
of mainly Mesozoic rocks. Minasberg (with the highest point
3 139 m above sea level).
The Pacific coastal plain is 50 km wide and 250
km long and corresponds to the altitude zone tierra
caliente, while the highlands include tierra templada
(500–1,500 m asl) and tierra fría (up to 3,000 m asl).
The Atlantic lowlands have Guatemala's largest
lake, the Izabal lake, and several water-rich rivers,
including. Motagua, Polochic and Sarstún.
The fourth region, El Petén, lies in the north
and occupies a third of Guatemala. It is an inaccessible,
flat area of 150–210 m above sea level, which has
limestone bedrock like other parts of the Yucatán Peninsula.
COUNTRYAAH, Guatemala belongs to the tropical zone, but due to the
large level differences in the country, the climate is not
uniform. The annual average temperature on both coastal
plains and in the lowlands in the north remains between 25
and 30 °C, while in the areas between 600 and 1,800 m above
sea level. drops to 17 °C.
Rainy periods occur from May to November and during the
rest of the year there is dry season. The Atlantic coast
with wind from the Caribbean all year round has hardly any
dry season at all. In the central parts, the precipitation
is 1,000–2,000 mm per year.
On the Pacific coast, tropical dry forest and savanna
originally grew; these areas are now largely cultivated. The
mountain ranges in the southwest (tierra templada)
are vegetatively reminiscent of southern Mexico's highlands
with forest of pine and evergreen oaks between about 1,000
and 2,000 m above sea level; here are now large coffee
The Atlantic coast and northern parts are more humid with
tropical rainforest and plantations of the course and sugar
cane. The rainforest contains many palm and mahogany
species; among the epiphytes are orchids and pineapple
plants. Guatemala's flora comprises about 8,000 species of
Through varied topography and vegetation, conditions for
a species-rich wildlife are provided, which to a large
extent have a South American character but also have
features from the nectar fauna. Among the mammals are
Guatemalan monkey (Alouaʹtta villoʹsa),
jaguar, ozelot, cougar, jaguarundi, white-tailed deer,
necklace pointer, giant ant cape (now rare) and North
Nearly 700 bird species have been observed in the
country. Incredible groups include herons, hummingbirds,
tyrants, tangars, cuttings and parrots. Atitlándopping (Podilyʹmbus
giʹgas), which was found in the Atitlán lake where it
was endemic, died out in the mid-1980s. Quetzal, a national
bird, has become very rare in recent times.
The frog and herbivorous fauna are rich. The glasses cage
and lace crocodile (Crocodyʹlus acuʹtus) are found
in some water systems.
In 2011, there were 21 national parks, which are
administered by the Ministry of Forestry. Most famous are
Atitlán, which housed the Atitlán doping, and
Tikal with a rich wildlife and large ruin areas from
the Mayan culture. In total, about 30% of the country was