Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, the whole of Guinea-Bissau except the part bordering
Guinea is lowland. The coastal area is crossed by a
large number of river valleys that give rise to a very lush
coastal type, riak coast. Large parts of the coast are
sometimes waterlogged, and mangrove swamps and marshlands
are common. The Bijagos Islands just off the coastline are
isolated parts of this plain.
The inner plains, which spread to the north,
form a smooth and monotonous topographic region. They
consist, in the northwest, of a southern part of the Senegal
river basin, and partly of the Gabú plain in the
northeastern part of the country, which is drained by the
rivers Geba and Cacheu and their tributaries. The slight
slope of their race allows them to meander over the ground
and float over their boards during the rainy season.
The northeastern highlands are made up of
outcrops from the sandstone plateau Fouta Djallon in Guinea,
which reaches about 200 m above sea level. The Boe Hills
spread between the western parts of Fouta Djallon and the
Gabú plain. They have deep degraded valleys between
flat-topped laterite clad elevations.
Guinea-Bissau is characterized by a hot and humid
climate. Along the coast, a monsoon climate type rains with
rainy season in May – October and with a rainfall of
1,000–2,500 mm per year. The interior of the country has
tropical savannah climate with greater variation in
temperature and rainfall. In the plains, 1,500-1,800 mm per
year falls and in the highlands less than 1 300 mm; Drying
times occur between November and April. The temperature is
high everywhere, on average 26-27 °C.
Plant-and animal life
The natural vegetation in the southern coastal region is
partly deciduous rainforest (in particular the islands still
have some such remains) and in the north as well as inland
by tree water. Nowadays large parts have been replaced with
more open savannas or cultivated land and palm plantations.
Along the coasts and estuaries there is mangrove swamp with
Wildlife is depleted, but the red baboon (Paʹpio
paʹpio), green markata, red colobus monkey (Procoʹlobus
baʹdius), house monkey, spotted hyena, several species
of antelope and squirrels are still widespread. For the
birds often seen among Reed Cormorant (Phalacro'corax
africa'nus), hooded vulture (Necrosy'rtes mo'nachus),
Black Kite, palm-nut vulture, rose-ringed parakeet,
Ethiopian Roller (Cora'cias abyssi'nicus), Pied
Kingfisher, Green Bee-eater, common bulbul, pied crow (Co'rvus
a'lbus) and various sunbirds. Common agam is one of the
most commonly seen lizards both in villages and on savannas.
Just over 10% of Guinea-Bissau's land area is under some
form of nature protection. In 2011, the country had two
national parks, both created in 2000.