Terrain shapes and bedrock
A 50-80 km wide plain closest to the coast constitutes
one of Guinea's four topographic regions, Lower Guinea.
A large number of river valleys that form deep coves and
protruding rocky pads, especially in the north (eg Cape
Verga), break off the long coastal zone with its numerous
lagoons and sandy reefs. The bedrock consists of granite and
gneiss; it is mostly covered by a reddish-type earthquake.
To the east of the coastal plain stands a highland,
Fouta Djallon, in a series of staircases. It is a
powerful sandstone massif that reaches over 1,500 meters
above sea level in northern Guinea.
The highlands also consist of plateaus with cut valleys
and protruding peaks of granite and rock. From here, source
streams are also used for several major rivers such as
Niger, Sénégal and Gambia.
East of Fouta Djallon takes the Upper Guinea,
which has a general slope to the northeast and an altitude
of 300 m above sea level. At most are some rounded hills of
granite, gneiss and quartzite.
In the south-east is a cool, wooded area, Guinea's
highlands, which at the border with Liberia reaches the
highest in the Nimba Mountains, 1,752 m above sea level.
In the most humid areas, apart from laterite, there are
sandy brown soils in the northeast and alluvial soils in the
COUNTRYAAH, Guinea is located in the tropical zone with high
humidity. The rainy season falls in April – October. On the
coast, the average rainfall is 4 300 mm per year, in Upper
Guinea 2 600 mm. At the beginning of the dry season, the dry
desert wind harms the wind from the southwestern Sahara.
Closest to the coast is the annual average temperature of 27
°C, in Fouta Djallon 25 °C; in Upper Guinea, the
temperature during the dry season reaches over 40 °C.
Plant-and animal life
The land is on the north-western border of the West
African forest area, and the natural vegetation is partly
rainforest (in the south-east) and partly tree water,
so-called guinea ash, where the trees during the dry season
fall their leaves. Large parts of the forests have been
replaced by opener savannas with tall grasses or by farmland
and plantations. In the savannah landscape, acacias and
monkey bread trees are eye-catching elements. Along the
rivers there is usually a forest border, called gallery
forest. On the coast there are some mangrove forests with
mainly red mangrove.
Wildlife is rich in some areas. Red baboon (Paʹpio
paʹpio), house monkey, green markata, spotted hyena and
several species of antelope are widespread. But there are
also chimpanzees, bush pigs, African elephant, African
buffalo, hippopotamus, dwarf hippopotamus, senegal
manate (Tricheʹchus senegaleʹnsis) and
leopard. Indigenous birds are marked brown, barnacle (Necrosyʹrtes
moʹnachus), pigeons, kingfishers, bee- eaters,
glossaries, bulbils, sunbirds and weavers. In addition, many
northern European bird species winter in the country. All
three crocodile species are found in Africa, but are now
rare. Other reptiles include rock surface, green mamba and
black and white lip cobra (Naʹja melanoleuca [-le
There is a national park, Badiar, and a couple of larger
nature reserves, among them Mont Nimba in the Nimba
Mountains on both sides of the border with the Ivory Coast,
in which there is both rainforest and open highland savannah
as well as a rich wildlife.