Terrain shapes and bedrock
A 20-60 km wide plain within the Atlantic coastline is
the smallest of the topographic regions of Guyana. Up to 5–6
km of land is flooded by the tides under the river, and the
entire coastline must be protected from the sea waves by
numerous ridges and canals.
To the south, a highland region with fun topography,
which rises from 15 to 120 m above sea level, takes over. on
the west side. The area, which is 130-160 km wide, is
covered by white sand, which is underpinned by Precambrian
rocks. Outside the crystalline area, west and south spreads
another highland area with the Kaieteur Plateau, which is
built up of sandstone and slate. It reaches the Acarai
Mountains at the southern border 610 m above sea level. and
culminates in the Pakaraima Mountains with the Roraima
massif (2,772 m above sea level).
The vast Rupununi lake is divided into two regions
through the east-west Kanuku chain, which reaches 1,000 m
above sea level.
Several large rivers flow into the Atlantic, including
Essequibo, Mazaruni and Cuyuni with a common mouth. Many
waterfalls are formed in the western highlands, i.a. the 226
m high Kaiete fall.
COUNTRYAAH, most of Guyana has a tropical rainforest climate, which
in the south turns into a tropical savannah climate. Through
the passages, humid air is introduced from the Atlantic over
the coastal areas. The temperature here is about 27 °C with
very little variation. Precipitation falls abundantly,
mainly on the coast during two periods, April – August and
December – January respectively; it amounts to 2,300 mm per
Savannah areas in the interior have only one rainy season
and receive 1,800 mm per year, though with great variation.
Along the coast there is a belt of mangroves, dominated
by species of the genus Rhizophora and
Avicennia. Grasslands and sugar cane plantations occur
near the coast, while the interior of the country is
occupied by lush tropical rainforest and mountain
rainforest, which are still largely unaffected.
The lowland rainforest is similar to that of the Amazon;
it is very rich in tree species. palms and species in the
families catalpa plants, coconut plum plants and parana nuts
(to the latter, among others, cannonball trees,
Couroupiʹta guianeʹnsis). In the shrub and herb layers,
predominantly neotropical families, such as pitcher plants
and stripe plants, are noticed; The epiphytic flora is rich
with many species of ferns, orchids and pineapple plants.
Because the rainforests are relatively unaffected,
wildlife is rich, albeit not as rich as in the original
parts of the Amazon. There are eight species of primates,
including red crab monkey (Alouaʹtta seniʹculus),
black cobweb monkey (Aʹteles paniʹscus),
two species of capuchin monkeys, and skull monkey, seven
species of cat animals, among others. jaguar, cougar, ozelot
and jaguarundi, two species of dog, bush dog and mahkong (Cerdoʹcyon
thous [tu: s]) as well as four species of half-bears,
i.a. common rhino (Naʹsua naʹsua). Some of
South America's last populations of giant deer are found in
Guyana. Furthermore, there are both species of umbilical,
three species of deer, capybara, giant ant cap, dwarf ant
cap, two species of bedbugs and four species of belts.
Guayana dolphins are found in the Essequibo River and in the
coastal waters beyond.
Birds include hummingbirds, macaws, and other parrots,
toucans, marsh birds, oilbirds, amazon shorebirds (Rupiʹcola
rupiʹcola) and rose spoon deer (Ajaia
[aja i ʹa] ajaʹja). There are upwards of
150 species of amphibians, i.a. deciduous frogs and poison
frogs, and between 150 and 200 species of crawfish,
including four species of crocodiles, anaconda, land snakes
In 2010, there was only one major nature protected area
in Guyana: the Kaieteur National Park (630 km2),
which was set aside as early as 1929 and expanded in 1999.