Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Iran is a highland with a pelvic interior surrounded by
high mountain ranges. Lowland is only along the two coastal
stretches of the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf and the
Oman Bay. Most of the country is higher than 460 m above sea
level, one sixth more than 2,000 m above sea level. The
whole area is part of the rock formation zone that extends
from the Alps to the Himalayas.
The Zagros Mountains extend from the Armenian
border into Iraqi Kurdistan and arcuate along the Persian
Elburz is an arcuate mountain range zone south
of the Caspian Sea. The highest of its volcanic peaks is
Demavend, 5,671 m above sea level. Earthquakes are common in
the area and are often severe. In the northwest, lava and
volcanic ash cover large areas
Kopet Dagh is an east-west mountain range that
continues east from Elburz and forms a border with
Turkmenistan. There are peaks of more than 3,000 meters
above sea level. North-south mountain roads also run along
the border with Pakistan and Afghanistan.
The inner plateau area has an altitude of 700-1
800 m above sea level. and crossed by several ridges. In the
more even parts, deserts are spreading, among other things.
The Kavir Desert and the Lut Desert, and in the lowest parts
sink with poorly drained soil and salt marsh (cavir).
Only the mountain sides have streams that flow into the
sea, eg. Karun, which flows into the Zagros Mountains and
ends in Shatt al-Arab as well as Safid, which extends from
the north side of Elburz into the Caspian Sea. The largest
lake is Urmia in the northwest, while many smaller ones are
Brown forest soil and mountain soil are the most common
soil moons in cooler and more humid areas, while brown soil
and chestnut soil are found in drier parts.
Iran is in the belt of desert and steppe climate that
spreads across southwestern Asia. Due to the altitude
conditions, the temperature varies greatly, subpolar
climates are found in the highest mountain areas and
tropical in the coastal areas. The rainfall mainly falls
during the winter, when low pressure from the Mediterranean
migrates. The plateau area has hot summers, 25-30 ～ C in
average temperature and cold winters, 0-5 ～ C, with little
rainfall (below 250 mm per year). In the mountainous
regions, the winter temperature drops to −20 ～ C, while the
coastal areas have average temperatures of 15 ～ C in January
and 35 ～ C in July.
The slopes of the Elburz chain to the southern coast of
the Caspian Sea have high rainfall and humidity, which
allows a lush and rich forest of deciduous trees, such as
wingnut and crustacean. At higher altitude, European types
dominate, such as oaks, maples and ebooks. In shadows with
rain shadows, small but plant-geographically interesting
pockets of Mediterranean flora are found with cypress, for
example. Both the Central European deciduous forest and the
Mediterranean flora reach its eastern border here.
Most of the Iranian highland with low rainfall and severe
climate is included in the Iranian-Turan flora area. The
vegetation is sparse and very heavily grazed, typically in
the form of low, prickly pads. The flora is a species with a
high degree of endemism, for example the Cousinia genus
with about 300 species in Iran, most endemic. The cushions
are, for example, wood species (probably over 500, the
largest genus in Iran) and Acantholiʹmon (family
The lower, usually drainless areas are desert almost
without vegetation or with salt adapted amaranth plants,
including the genus Haloʹxylon.
The southwest edge mountains, the Zagros Mountains,
receive more rainfall and carry some sparse oak forests.
There are many endemics here, but also a large element of
Mediterranean species. The southernmost Iran belongs to the
Sahara-Sindh flora area, mostly with desert and peninsular
species that are widely distributed.
There are about 125 species of mammals in the country,
450 species of birds (including migratory birds) and just
over 150 species of crustaceans and amphibians. vipers,
cobras and agams. Lion has died out in the 1900s, and
Caspian tiger (Pantheʹra tiʹgris virgaʹta) existed
in the forests of the Caspian Sea until the 1970s, but is
now probably extinct. Here you will also find leopard, brown
bear, red fox, wolf, stone marten, red deer, deer and
mountains in the mountains. In drier areas there are
cheetahs (a few hundred animals), caracal, golden shawl,
streaked hyena, mungo, half-ash, dorkas gas and demand gas (Gazeʹlla
subgutturoʹsa). In the south there are honey badgers,
jungle cat (Feʹlis chaus [-a u s]),
white-necked porcupine (Hyʹstrix iʹndica) and
Many species of birds of prey, including dwarf eagles,
sea eagles and five species of vultures, as well as six
species of avian and eleven species of rock washes. In the
mountains to the north are Caspian snow hen (Tetraogaʹllus
caʹspius) and in eastern Iran the endemic, only 25 cm
long crowed Iranian desert war (Podoʹces
pleʹskei). Ducks, geese, egrets and waders winter in
rivers and lakes.
In 2010, Iran had 16 national parks as well as a large
number of protected areas, corresponding to 7% of the
country's area. The two largest national parks are Lake
Urmia, a large bird-rich salt lake in northwestern Iran, and
Kavir, a partially mountainous peninsula in the Kavir Desert
southeast of Tehran.