Terrain shapes and bedrock
to COUNTRYAAH, Italy is a mountainous country with two mountain ranges,
the Apennines and parts of the Alps, within its borders.
Bergen continues to be multi-urban with hill areas, and
together these two landform types occupy 3/4 of the land
The rest is made up of plains, mainly Poslätten.
The Alps within Italy's borders extend in a wide
arc from the Gulf of Genoa to the Gulf of Trieste. To the
west, the mountain range runs in a north-south direction and
forms a border with France. To the east then the Central
Alps continue and reach the highest in the Pennine Alps,
with Monte Cervino (Matterhorn), 4 478 m above sea level,
and Monte Rosa, 4 634 m above sea level, the highest point
in Italy. Then they continue east to the Brenner Pass, where
the Eastern Alps take off. South of the highest border
mountains, limestone deposits are spread, where karst forms
of various kinds have been eroded.
Poslätten is by far the largest plain in Italy
and is one of the alluvium- filled sea coves. The majority
is about 100 meters above sea level. It is crossed by the Po
River and its tributaries and by a few rivers northeast of
the Pos estuary, e.g. Adige, Brenta and Piave. The lower
part of Poslätten is summed, as is Pos's participation in
the Adriatic. Higher up, the glaciers of the Ice Age have
created a varied landscape of gravel terraces, plateaus,
moraine banks and creek lakes, such as Lake Maggiore, Lake
Como and Lake Garda.
On the Apennine Peninsula, the Apennines extend
with several separate ridges. The peninsula has its greatest
width in the middle part, where the highest peak, Corno
Grande, is 2 912 meters above sea level. found in the Gran
Sasso d'Italia mountain range. The southern part is lower
and has partly granite and gneiss bedrock. Further south,
the active volcanoes Vesuvius, 1,277 m above sea level, in
Campania, and Etna, 3,322 m above sea level in Sicily, as
well as the Liparic islands with Stromboli and Vulcano, are
classic in volcanological contexts.
Sardinia is a lower island, known for its caves.
The soil cover in Italy is thin on the Apennine
Peninsula, where fertile brown soils and terra ross at the
far south are important soil moons. The moraine soil of the
Alpine region has been developed into a dark brown pod sun,
while Poslättens alluvial quilt has brown earth character.
Italy can be divided into three regions with
characteristic climate: the Alps, the Poslätten and the
In the region to the far north on the southern slopes
of the Alps, the climate is similar to that of the
Swiss and Austrian Alps. However, the precipitation is more
abundant, generally exceeding 1,000 mm per year, and reaches
over 2,500 mm in the rock massif. Summer is rainy season and
thunderstorms are common during spring, summer and fall. The
northern winds sometimes affect the winter weather strongly
with higher temperatures and drier air as a result.
Poslätten has a distinct climate with rain that
is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, though
somewhat more abundant during spring and autumn, a total of
about 700 mm. During summer and autumn, the rainfall falls
in connection with thunder, but only for a few days. The
summers are hot and sunny, just like southern Italy. Winters
are relatively cold with frost, fog and snow during the
winter months. The cold winter wind drill sometimes sweeps
down from the north over the Trieste area to the far east
and affects the Northeast coastline of the Apennine
Peninsula to some extent.
The Apennine Peninsula has a typical
Mediterranean climate with winter rain and summer drought.
However, the climate in the interior mountain areas differs
quite dramatically from the coasts, especially in winter.
The Apennines, Sicily and Sardinia have an alternating
weather at all times of the year except in the summer, when
a stable and sunny high pressure normally occurs. Highland
areas are cold in winter with plenty of rainfall, often as
snow. The coasts have mild winters with hot, usually dry,
summers. Generally, less precipitation falls on the east
side, but temperatures on the coast do not differ much from
north to south. The driest and sunniest is in the
southeastern part of the country as well as in Sardinia and
Sicily, which get below 800 mm, in the driest parts about
500 mm. In the west and on the heights of the Apennines, the
annual rainfall is about 1,000 mm.
The average winter temperature is 5–10 °C in the south
(highest in the coastal band) and 0 °C in the north and in
the Apennines, in the Alps, however, down to –8 °C and snow
cover. The summer temperature varies between 20 and 25 °C
on average, about 10 °C in the Alps.
In addition to the dryer and the drill, other seasonal
winds blow in from the Mediterranean, eg. the warm, humid
and dust-bearing sciroccon over the southern parts during
the summer and the harsh northwestern mistral over the
western parts during the winter (see map wind).
Plant-and animal life
Italy's rich and diverse nature is shaped by the varied
topography and Mediterranean climate with dry, hot summers
and rainier winters. To the north, the country is bordered
by the mighty Alps with several mountains over 4,000 m.
South, therefore, occupies a large lowland area created by
the river Po, which is heavily cultivated and with very
little original nature left. The Apennines mountain range is
the backbone of the country, even from a nature point of
view. Other lowland regions are the coastal zone along the
Tyrrhenian Sea. Rome is located, and Apulia in the
south-east, the very "boot heel" of Italy. Sicily and, above
all, Sardinia show a different nature in several respects
compared to the mainland.
Gran Paradiso's national park in northwestern Italy is
named after the mountain of the same name. The area was set
aside in 1856 as a royal hunting reserve for the protection
of alpine goats. At that time, Gran Paradiso was the only
place where the species lived throughout the Alps. In 1922,
Italy's first national park was established here. Thanks to
careful work by the staff in the park, the eradication of
alpine goats could be prevented, and today more than 2,500
individuals of the species live within the boundaries of the
national park. In addition, animals from Gran Paradiso have
been used to re-colonize the rest of the Alps, where more
than 30,000 individuals are found today.
In addition to alpine goats, the national park protects a
larger area (70,000 ha) of unique alpine nature with high
mountains, glaciers, alpine and forests with beech, larch,
spruce, pine and camber numbers. Genuine chestnut grows in
the most climate-friendly valleys. On the alpine meadows,
several species of alpros and gentian, and curly lily and
edelweiss thrive. With around 8,000 animals, the national
park houses one of the largest populations of gems in the
Alps. Golden eagle and alpine ant are common and, thanks to
reinsertion, there are now 2–3 nesting pairs of lambs.Wolf
is about to recolonize the region from populations further
south in the Apennines. Together with neighboring Vanoise
National Park in France, Gran Paradiso is one of Western
Europe's largest nature conservation areas.
Stelvio's national park in northern Italy is the largest
in the country with its 131,000 ha. Together with the
neighboring Swiss National Park and the two regional nature
parks Adamello – Brenta and Adamello, the protection zone
amounts to 400,000 ha, which is the largest in the entire
Alps. Stelvio exhibits a typical alpine fauna and flora.
Among animals are identified chamois, the ibex, deer, red
deer, wild boar, alpine marmot, hare, lammergeier (2-3
pairs), Golden Eagle, dotterel, grouse, grouse, grouse,
grouse, stone chicken and berguv. Flora includes species
thatmower, guckusko, mountain sip (see mountain siphons),
blue sip, curly lily, harpsichord, spruce and larch.
In the Trentino-Alto Adige region there is the only
remaining brown bear strain in the Alps outside Slovenia.
About 25-30 animals live here, especially within the
Adamello-Brenta nature park. In the early 1990s, only three
bears were left of the original tribe, which is why it was
decided to introduce new animals from Slovenia. During the
period 1999-2002, 10 bears were released with good results.
Animals from Trentino-Alto Adige now also migrate to
Switzerland and Austria, although several of them have been
injured, especially in traffic.
Most of the original nature around the river Po is now
just a memory. However, some of the most valuable areas
closest to the Adriatic have been saved. Pos delta nature
park. Here you will still find colonies of silk herons,
night herons, rattlesnakes, purple herons, stilt runners,
black-legged beach poppers and small terns. The number of
nesting pairs of small terns (1,250) is the largest
concentration in the western Palarctic region (Europe, North
Africa, Arabian Peninsula, western Middle East and Russia
west of the Ural Mountains).
In the Gulf of Venice just north of Podeltat there is a
similar bird fauna as well as over 100,000 wintering
individuals of black-necked dopping, scotch, teal, marsh
snap and large cormorant.
The Valli di Comacchio lagoon south of Podeltat is a
third valuable wetland area with some additional nesting
species such as cutting spots (see cutting spots),
red-winged swallows (Glareola pratincola),
black-headed gull, sand tern, Kentish tern, and rattlesnake.
Southwest of Milan lies Lomellina with extensive rice
farms where a total of 20,000 pairs of herons of different
species find a large part of their food. Here you will find
Europe's second largest colony of night herons with 5,400
In central Apennines, only 1-2 hours drive from Rome, you
will find the largest concentration of national parks and
reserves in Italy. Best known is Abruzzo National Park with
a unique combination of beautiful mountain scenery, open
plateaus, old beech forests on the slopes and valleys with
beautifully located medieval villages. On a private
initiative, the first reserve was established as early as
1922 in collaboration with one of the local municipalities.
Step by step, the National Park was expanded to reach its
present extent (50,000 ha) during the 1980s. The National
Park extends over 25 different municipalities, all of which
have the economic potential, primarily through tourism.
Abruzzo National Park is one of the places where you can
most easily experience bear and wolf in Europe. One such
place is the village of Gioia Vecchio in the northern part
of the park, where you have a good overview of the pastoral
landscape and both bears and wolves are often seen. Deer,
deer and wild boar are common.
Close to Abruzzo are a series of other national parks
(Majella, Sibillini and Gran Sasso) and nature reserves
(including Montagne della Duchessa, Monte Velino, Sirente
Velino and Monte Genzano). In conjunction with Sirente
Velino and Monte Velino, they have successfully re-implanted
goosebumps and plans are in the same way to regain lambs - a
collaboration between Gran Sasso, Majella, Sbillini and
The Apulia of southeastern Italy houses two important
natural areas - Mount Monte Gargano and the limestone
plateau Le Murge.
Monte Gargano, with its 69 species, is Europe's center
for orchid enthusiasts. Not elsewhere in Europe are more
species found in the same area. More than 2,000 different
vascular plants have been found at Monte Gargano - about as
many as in the entire Nordic region. To safeguard this
diversity, the Gargano National Park has been set up,
beautifully situated along the Adriatic coast.
Le Murge further south in Puglia is one of Italy's
largest steppe areas with an interesting flora and fauna.
Most notable are the birds with the country's largest
concentration of red falcons (1,500 breeding pairs) as well
as species such as perch, snake eagle, thick foot (see thick
feet), calender larch, short toe mark, glasses singer,
red-throated singer and black-headed sparrow (Emberiza
melanocephala). The area has been proposed as a
Sardinia with its sandy beaches, rocky coast and crystal
clear waters is one of Europe's most important destinations.
But the island also offers an attractive nature with vast
forests in the interior and in the coastal sections nice
flowering Corsican scrub with species such as tree heather,
arbutus, törnginst (Calicotome spinosa), rosemary
and cistrosor (Cistus).
In Gennargentus National Park in the eastern part of
Sardinia there is still a strain of Sardinian/Corsican
deer. The subspecies were rescued from extinction in
Sardinia during the 1970s and 1980s and could be
reintroduced in 1998 to Koriska, from where it had
disappeared in the 1970s.
The Archipelago of Small Islands around Sardinia offers
good conditions for several species of seabirds, such as
yellow-billed lira, storm-swallow (see storm-swallows), top
cormorant and red-billed jellyfish, especially in the
Maddalena National Park in the Bonifacios Strait between
Sardinia and Corsica. On the Sinish peninsula on the west
coast of Sardinia there is an important wetland area with
flamingo, red falcon, purple hen, red-winged swallow (see
wading swallows), long-billed gull and sand tern. Just
south-east of the town of Oristano (also in the western
part) is Campidano, a steppe area with small stairs, thick
foot and mutton hen.
In 2012, Italy had 24 national parks (see table) as well
as a large number of regional parks (mainly for the
protection of the landscape) and nature reserves. About 15%
of the land area and 17% of the sea area are protected by
National Stäng tabell
|Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise
||Abruzzo, Lazio, Molise
|Appennino Lucano, Val d'Agri a lagoon grass
||Emilia – Romagna, Tuscany
|Arcipelago de la Maddalena
|Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni
|First Casentinesi, Monte Falterona, Campigna
||Emilia – Romagna, Tuscany
||Valle d'Aosta, Piedmont
|Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga
||Marche, Abruzzo, Lazio
|Stelvio – Stilfserjoch
||Lombardiet, Trentino–Alto Adige