Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Lebanon has a strongly embossed relief with heights of
over 3,000 meters above sea level. Most of the country is
mountainous and sloping areas therefore dominate. Lebanon is
usually divided into four topographical regions, all of
which extend to the north-northeast and southwest. Inside
the coastline is a narrow, mostly fertile coastal plain,
made up of river deposits and marine sediments. The coast
itself has both rocky headlands and sandy bays. Within the
coastal plain, the country rises to the dominant landform,
Mount Lebanon. It is about 160 km long and 10-55 km wide; it
rises almost from the sea level to 3,087 m above sea level.
in the top Qurnat as-Sawda in the north. The mountain ridge
slopes to the south, but a peak, Jabal Sannin, rises to 2
628 m above sea level. just northeast of Beirut. The bedrock
is made up of limestone and sandstone, which gives a rather
To the east of Mount Lebanon follows the Beka Valley and
then Anti-Lebanon. Both of these parallel mountains and the
valley between are a consequence of the faults that occurred
in the area in connection with the formation of the East
African rift to which they belong. The mountains are horstar
and Bekadalen a tomb, about 175 km long and 10-25 km wide.
In the south it passes into the lowest parts of Hermon. The
peak height of this mountain is 2,814 meters above sea
level. on the border with Syria. The largest rivers in
Lebanon are Litani, which drains the Beka Valley, as well as
Asi and Kabir.
The climate in Lebanon is of warm temperate,
Mediterranean type and is characterized by its proximity to
the sea and the high mountains. Summer is hot and dry and
winter cool and humid. On the coast, the maximum temperature
in July during the day reaches 32 ～ C and in January 16 ～ C,
in Bekadalen 32 ～ C and 10 ～ C respectively. The minimum
temperatures in January are 10 ～ C and 2 ～ C, respectively.
The majority of the annual rainfall, on the coast
750-1000 mm, falls during the winter. The higher parts
receive 1,250 mm, a large part as snow, Bekadalen 400-600 mm
The flora is mainly Mediterranean and characterized by
winter rain. Along the sea you will find a rich herb flora,
including many species of coriander plants, orchids and
amaryllis plants. The bush vegetation is culturally affected
and fairly depleted and houses species such as the oaks
Queʹrcus callipriʹnos and Q. infectoʹria as
well as species from among others the Pistaʹcia
genus, goats (Rhaʹmnus) and cystros (Ciʹstus).
At higher altitudes, the climate gradually gets drier
with Beʹrberis libanoʹtica as the dominant shrub up
to about 2,000 m above sea level. At these levels you will
also find the remaining forests of Lebanon cedar, which also
includes Turkish pine (Piʹnus bruʹtia), a number of
oak species and to the north also the Turkish branch.
The higher mountains, over 2,000 m above sea level, are
desert-like with lower, often thorny, pillow-shaped
half-bushes, including Acantholiʹmon, several wood
species, the euphorbia plant Euphourbia caudiculoʹsa
and the amaranth plant Noaeʹa mucronaʹta.
There are almost no large mammals left as a result of
hunting and the destruction of natural environments. In the
mountainous areas and the few remaining coniferous forests
there are European wildcats, stone moors, Persian squirrels
(Sciuʹrus anoʹmalus) and garden sleepers.
caphare and large-eared hedgehog and eastern hedgehog.
Bird life is rich with several species of singers,
larches, sparrows and finches. Many migratory birds pass or
winter in Lebanon. In the marshes there are then pelicans,
egrets, ducks and cormorants. In the mountainous regions
impressive numbers of migratory birds of prey can be seen in
spring and autumn.
Among the herbivores are the sandboa (Eʹryx
jaʹculus), the palestine worm (Viʹpera
palaestiʹnae), the tailed swans and dabbagams.
In 2010, Lebanon had a national park, Mashgara, in the
south. In addition, there were four so-called forest
reserves and the Palm Island marine reserve northwest of