Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, northern Mali is part of the Sahara, while the southern
part of the country belongs to the Sudan region. The oldest
bedrock is found in the Iforasberg rounded granite cliffs in
the northeast. Otherwise, the bedrock is covered by younger
sandstones and loose deposits. The Iforas Mountains, which
reach up to 890 m above sea level, are an outlet of the
Ahaggarm Massif in Algeria.
The Niger River makes a strong bend in Mali and develops
a vast inland west of the Dogon Plateau. The plateaus in the
southwest reach up to 800 m above sea level. and have deep
cut river gorges, while in the southeast they form a more
scenic landscape with levels between 300 and 600 m above sea
level. Highest of the plateaus is the Dogon Plateau, which
in Hombori Tondo reaches up to 1,155 m above sea level.
In the Fouta Djallon massif on the border with Guinea,
several of the Senegal's tributaries are rising.
The location at the northern turnaround gives Mali a dry
and hot high-pressure weather. The most precipitation
receives the Sudan region in the south, with an annual
average rainfall of 500–1 400 mm. The northern part of the
country is desert and is characterized by large differences
in temperature, both between summer and winter and between
day and night.
Plant-and animal life
At the far south are sparse forests with, among other
things. acacias and Isoberliʹnia (the pea family).
Further north, the landscape becomes more open with grassy
hills and collections of, among other things. doumpalm.
Further north, grass water takes over and finally the
desert. In total, about 1 750 flowering plants have been
noted. The drought of recent decades, in combination with
overgrazing, has depleted vegetation and degraded the soil.
Most large mammals have disappeared and many breeding
areas for birds are threatened as the fields become drier.
More than ten mammal species are endangered. Today there are
about 140 species of mammals, about 400 species of breeding
birds and 16 species of reptiles. Of large mammals there are
lions, spotted hyena and several species of antelope, in the
desert e.g. Addax. South of Bamako is a protected area with
50-150 chimpanzees. In the inland delta of the Niger River,
bird life is rich, and here also many migrating ducks from
the northern hemisphere rest.
Mali had a national park in 1996, Boucle du Baoulé
northwest of Bamako, a dry saw, sometimes with dense gallery
forest along the rivers. lion, leopard, giraffe and hippo.
In addition, there were 15 fauna reserves or other types of