Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Malta is located on a seabed that extends from Sicily to
Tunisia. The islands are built up of tertiary sand and
limestone deposits, which slope slightly to the northeast.
The southwest part of the main island forms a plateau of
about 200 m above sea level. Nadur Tower is 239 meters above
sea level. and a peak south of Rabat reaches 258 meters
above sea level. The surface is porous, inclined and
slightly wavy, with the higher strips consisting of coral
lime. The southern coast is particularly high and steep and
without major inlets, while the northern coast has many deep
bays with good, natural ports. Smaller plain areas exist,
e.g. in the southeast. Gozo, the second largest island, is
also a broken plateau of coral limestone with lower plains
to the south. There are no watercourses, but the rainwater
drops easily down to the impervious blue clay, which has two
different groundwater surfaces.
Malta has a warm temperate climate of pronounced
Mediterranean type. The summers are warm, dry and very sunny
while the winters are mild, rainy and only occasionally
chilly. Frost can occur in winter. Three quarters of the
precipitation amount of about 550 mm per year falls during
October – March, while June and July are in principle
completely dry. The average temperature for the year is 19 °C, while the monthly average temperature ranges from 12 to
26 °C. Strong winds are common, e.g. the cold mistral from
the northwest and the hot and dry sciroccon on the front of
The flora is composed of about 70% of species with more
or less spread in the Mediterranean. Several species that
tolerate salt influence are common, e.g. Iʹnula
crithmoiʹdes, sea fennel (Criʹthmum mariʹtimum),
sea onions, tamarisk and francs. Due to cultural influence,
natural tree and shrub vegetation is now rare and is
preferably found in protected valleys. Among the species are
the alpine number, kermesek, mastic, myrtle, olive and
Paliuʹrus spiʹna-chriʹsti and Rhaʹmnus lycioiʹdes,
as well as the now rare cypress species scars (Tetracliʹnis
articulaʹta), which was still common on the island
during the late 18th century. Malta has only a few endemic
species, which indicates that the islands have been isolated
from the mainland in a relatively recent period.
The higher fauna is rather poor, among other things. as a
result of hunting. There are only small species of domestic
mammals, i.a. small weasel, Spanish hedgehog, water beak
mouse, house beak mouse and some species of bats such as
horseshoes. Hedgehogs include blue eagle, velvet cap,
eyewear, Spanish sparrow and yellow beak and smaller lira.
Large numbers of birds pass through Malta during the move.
During this time, Maltese birds are hunting intensively,
which has led to protests from conservation organizations
throughout Europe. Among the herbivores are the endemic
species of Maltese Lizard (Podaʹrcis filfoleʹnsis)
and Moorish land tortoise.
During the Pleistocene there was a dwarf elephant (Eʹlephas
falconeʹri) in Malta and also a hippopotamus in dwarf
Malta has a large number of nature-protected areas of
small size, among others. nature reserve and bird sanctuary.
About 17% of the land area is protected in some form,
including the entire south and west coasts.