Most of the islands are atolls and consist of volcanic
rocks deposited with coral lime. They often have a thin
fertile soil layer. However, Yap, farthest to the west, is
of continental origin and has been formed by folding the
earth's crust. The highest peak, 790 m above sea level, is
found on Pohnpei in the east. Between the Yap and the
Marianas is the world's largest known depth, the Challenger
COUNTRYAAH, the climate is tropical with an annual average
temperature of 26-29 °C and high rainfall, averaging 3,000
mm per year.
The flora is largely Malay. There are few unique genus
but high proportion of endemic species. The coasts are often
bordered by coconut trees, and in the inner parts there are
bushlands and grasslands on many islands. Screw palm trees
are common, and at estuaries there are mangroves.
Many islands are surrounded by coral reefs with rich
fauna, while the land fauna is poor. Of mammals, only a
small number of bats and moths are present. Almost 130
species of birds have been observed, including migratory
birds. There are a few native species of snakes and lizards.
The Micronesian Federation has no major areas under
Geography of the Federation of Micronesia
The Micronesia Federation encompasses the eastern and
central parts of the archipelago of the Karolines (the
westernmost islands of Palau), and lies entirely in the
tropics north of the equator, but south of the sun's
northern (crustal) orbit. The islands of Pohnpei, Kosrae and
the islands of Chuuklagun are mountainous and of volcanic
origin. The main island of Yap, on the other hand, is of
continental origin. Almost all of the remaining (outer)
islands are flat coral atolls consisting of one or more
small islands. The largest island is Pohnpei, which alone
covers almost half of the entire federation's area. Pohnpei
also has the federation's highest mountain (791 masl).
The climate is tropical with high humidity. Temperatures
are between 22 and 30 ° C with very small seasonal
variations. The average daytime temperature is 27 ° C on all
four main islands. The rainfall is large, but decreases from
east to west (Kosrae 4700-6350 mm, Pohnpei 4900 mm, Chuuk
(lagoon islands) 3600 mm and the main island of Yap 3100
mm). The islands are occasionally affected by natural
disasters such as hurricanes and droughts.
Plant life in the Micronesia Federation
In the higher islands, the high rainfall and rich
volcanic soil provide the basis for dense rainforest. Atolls
are palm trees, as well as tropical shrubs and trees the
most important vegetation forms.
Wildlife in the Micronesia Federation
Six native (endemic) bat species are the only naturally
occurring land mammals in the Micronesia Federation.
Numerous species have been introduced and deceived, often
with significant negative consequences for the local fauna:
pig, goat, deer, rabbit and three rat species.
119 species of birds are registered, more than half
appear in migrations or as random guests. Among the more
than 30 nesting seabird species are cetaceans, brown sole,
redfish, soot and silkites, brown and black nods. Many of
the terrestrial nesting birds are native: pigeons, parakeets
and six goggles.
27 reptile species and one introduced amphibian species;
the poisonous agapad from South America.
In the sea live several dolphin species and other whales,
four sea turtle species and more than 1000 species of fish.
Among the invertebrates are the more than 400 coral
species and the giant mussels up to 1 meter long.
Plant life in Micronesia
Flora and vegetation in Micronesia show a close
relationship to the Asian, and preferably to Indonesia and
New Guinea. Species richness and variety gradually diminish
to the east, and in the eastern parts of Micronesia there is
also a limited feature of species originally native to South
America. The most typical vegetation on the islands is the
one found in the beach zone, with many sea-spread and
salt-tolerant plant species, such as coconut palms and screw
palms. Mangrove vegetation occurs in brackish water sump.
In the higher islands, there are partly primary forests
in the form of evergreen rainforests, but they are often
replaced by secondary forests and/or grasslands where fire
or changing agriculture has been involved. Gressland is also
found in areas with poor soil or low rainfall, for example.
on the rain shadow side of the islands.