Terrain shapes and bedrock
Inside the coast there is a 70-160 km wide belt, the
Namib Desert, which consists mostly of sandy fields,
migratory caves and mountain blots. It is highest in the
north with several granite mountains, among others.
Brandberg (2,574 m asl), which is the highest point in the
country. A step-steep slope to the east forms a transition
to the central highlands of 1,100–2,200 m above sea level.
It is shared by a mountain range around Windhoek, which is a
water divide, in Damaraland and Ovamboland in the north and
Namaland in the south.
Closer to the border with Botswana, part of Kalahari,
which is a high basin area with thick sand layers and
limestone fields, is spreading. The sand covers large parts
of the Etoshas Plain and the Okavango Basin in the north.
Among the few permanent watercourses are noted Kunene and
the Okavango River as well as the Orange River, border
rivers in the north and south respectively.
COUNTRYAAH, Namibia has a dry tropical climate. The coastal area
receives a maximum of 100 mm of precipitation per year, and
the central highland area receives up to 600 mm per year,
mainly in the summer (December – February). This year's
average temperature varies between 22 °C in the interior of
the country and 17 °C on the coast. During the summer the
temperature rises to 38 °C in the north and 49 °C in the
The flora is rich in endemic species, which in a few
cases are very special. The most remarkable plant in the
Namib Desert is welwitschia, a nude plant with very peculiar
appearance. Inland, the desert turns into steppe vegetation,
with euphorbios and Commiʹphora species as well as
tuber of perennial grasses.
At the far south, the flora is richer and is dominated by
so-called carrots with numerous succulents from the families
of herbaceous, fatty leaf and foxglove (eg geraniums). In
the interior of southern Namibia, the bush steppe dominates
the grasses love grasses, Ariʹstida and
Stipagroʹstis. In the east, savannas with
Commiʹphora and Acaʹcia haematoʹxylon and
Acacia giraʹffae spread. At the far north you will find
rich deciduous forests with the pea plants Baikiaea
[-ɛ: ʹa] pluriʹjuga and Colophospeʹrmum mopaʹne.
Compared to neighboring countries, the fauna in Namibia
is poor in species. Many mammals are adapted for life in
deserts and semi-deserts, i.a. stone antelope (Raphiʹcerus
campeʹstris), oyx, elephant beak mice, camo fox (Vuʹlpes
chaʹma), black-footed cat and caracal. Brown hyena is a
characteristic feature. In humid areas there are typical
African savannah mammals such as lion, African elephant,
warthog, common zebra, giraffe and common eland.
Birds include stairs, flying chickens and larches.
Several smaller desert animals, including the insects black
beetles, utilize morning fogs that sweep in from the sea to
In 2011, Namibia formally had eight national parks. In
addition, there are a number of larger game parks or nature
reserves that in practice function as national parks. In
total, 17% of the country's area was under some form of