COUNTRYAAH, Nauru is an oval atoll with a central plateau, composed
mainly of coral limestone with layers of guano. The plateau,
which reaches up to about 65 m above sea level, is very rich
in phosphate and is surrounded by a band of fertile soil. It
is relieved to the sea side by sandy beaches and coral
Nauru has a hot and humid climate. The average daily
temperature during the year is 28 °C. The annual rainfall
is around 2,000 mm, concentrated to the months of November
to February, when western winds dominate.
The vegetation consists largely of coconut and screw palm
trees and shrubs of various kinds; it occurs mainly in the
coastal area and in old phosphate quarries where replanting
has been done.
Nauru has no protected areas.
Nauru is a coral island, surrounded by reefs that are
visible at low tide. In the middle of the island there is an
approx. 60 m high plateau with high phosphate deposits. The
plateau is surrounded by a 150–300 m wide relatively fertile
lowland. The soil is otherwise very porous and poor. Mining
has caused great damage to nature.
Tropical climate, with abundant annual rainfall that
falls very irregularly. Periods of drought may occur.
Read more about Wildlife at Nauru.
Wildlife at Nauru
At Nauru 25 bird species have been observed. The nine
species that breed are small tropical birds, five terns, a
heron, a dove and the native (endemic) Naurus singer.
Geography and environment
Nauru is an oval to almost circular coral island on an
ancient volcanic crater. The island is surrounded by a reef
which can be seen at low tide. The highest point is Janor
(Command Ridge), 65 meters above sea level. The middle part
of Nauru is a plateau of phosphates formed by guano (bird
eczema). Mining has left about 85 percent of Naurus land
area deserted and uninhabitable, while 40 percent of marine
life has been killed by sludge and phosphate runoff.
Characteristic are 4-10 meter high branches and pyramids in
a near desert landscape formed by phosphate extraction. The
central plateau is surrounded by a fertile 150-300 meter
wide fertile lowland, a sandy beach and a coral reef off the
coast. Fresh water is limited.
Since Nauru is located only 42 kilometers south of the
equator, the average temperature is around 27 degrees all
year. It ranges from 26 to 35 degrees during the day and
from 22 to 34 degrees at night. Nauru can "sink" with rising
sea levels, and is one of the countries in the world most
affected by global warming.
The rainfall is relatively plentiful and irregular with
about 2000 millimeters per year. Most precipitation falls in
January. Drought periods occur.
Due to phosphate farming and low vegetation, the flora
and fauna are not very varied and poor in species. Adjacent
to the other of two plateaus is forest with, among other
things, coconut trees and fig trees, in the north there are
also mangrove trees. The groundwater is deep so that the
soil surface is dry. 60 species of vascular plants have been
There are no large animals except introduced pets such as
dog, cat and pig. Polynesian rat is also introduced. The
frigate bird is the Naurus national bird and the endemic
(native) Naurus singer is the island's only songbird. Many
bird species have disappeared or are severely decimated due
to habitat destruction.
In the sea there are many species of fish, corals and