Terrain shapes and bedrock
Topographically, Nepal forms a steep transition between
the Himalayas and the northern Indian plains. The height
differences are therefore very large and Nepal can
accommodate a wide range of landforms and types of habitat.
At the border with Tibet rises in the northern Himalayas
main chain with some of the highest peaks in the earth,
including. According to
COUNTRYAAH, Mount Everest, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse I, Manaslu
and Annapurna, with altitudes over 8,000 meters above sea
level. From these glacier-covered mountains, long glacier
tongues extend down into the valleys.
At the southern foot of the Himalayas, an approximately
80 km wide region stretches between 4,300 and 2,500 meters
above sea level with some snow-capped peaks, bounded south
by the Mahabharat Mountains with their steep cliffs to the
south. Large valleys also occur such as the Kathmandu and
Pokhara valleys, which are covered by sediments from ice
ages and middle ages. A ledge below the Mahabharat Mountains
is completed by the 1,200 m high Churi Ridge with its almost
perpendicular slopes. The lowest lying region of Nepal is
Tarai, a continuation to the north of the Ganges plain. In
its northern part, the plain is moist and swampy.
The bedrock in Nepal is largely made up of sediment
masses deposited in the Tethys Sea in Mesozoic times (about
245-65 million years ago) and then converted to metamorphic
rocks. Precambrian rocks and tertiary volcanic rocks are
also present. Among the many rivers are Kosi, Gandak and
Karnali (Gogra), which come from Tibet and have cut deep
valleys with falls through the mountain ranges. At Tarais
Plains they sometimes cause severe flooding.
Earthquakes in Nepal
Large earthquakes occur regularly in the area as a result
of the Indian-Australian continental plate collision with
the Eurasian plate (see plate tectonics and earthquake). In
1934 a major earthquake occurred in Indian Bihar (8.1 on the
Richter scale). On this occasion, the Kathmandu Valley was
hit hard. In 1988, another powerful earthquake (6.8 on the
Richter scale) occurred, this time in the India-Nepal
border. This one also hit the Kathmandu valley hard. The
last major earthquake in the area came on April 25, 2015 and
measured 7.8 on the Richter scale.
The epicenter of the quake on April 26 was located 68 km
southeast of Pokhara. As the depth of focus was quite close,
the damage was extensive. There were also several
aftershocks and the human and material damage is considered
to be large. The days after the earthquake were reported
about 4,000 deceased, later this was revised to just over
7,000, but the information on injured and deceased is very
uncertain. In the country's capital Kathmandu, several
culturally protected buildings were demolished and much of
the country's infrastructure was destroyed. The world
heritage of the Kathmandu Valley has also been seriously
damaged. The earthquake has also triggered avalanches in the
Himalayas, among which several people have died in the base
camp at Mount Everest. On May 12, Nepal was hit again by a
major earthquake (7.3 on the Richter scale) with epicenter
about 75 km northeast of Kathmandu.
The altitude conditions strongly affect Nepal's climate,
which varies from tropical monsoon climate to mountainous
polar climate. In the middle part of the country it is hot
and cold temperate. Over 4,800 meters above sea level the
temperature is constantly below freezing point and snow is
Rainfall is plentiful in the eastern part of the Tarai
(1,800-1,900 mm per year), while the western parts get
750-875 mm. In the Kathmandu Valley, it averages 10 ～ C in
January and 26 ～ C in July. The rain falls mainly in June -
The flora consists of species that are widely distributed
in the Himalayas, but the number of endemic species is
small. The vegetation is characterized by the large
elevation differences but also by the differences in
precipitation and temperature. Along the southern side of
the mountains there are cultivated plains, but also rich
sub-tropical and tropical forests. At higher altitudes, the
forest is dominated by the pine Piʹnus roxbuʹrghii
and the oaks Queʹrcus incaʹna and Quercus
lanuginoʹsa or, as in the east, by Castanoʹpsis
and Schiʹma (the family of tea plants).
The central parts of Nepal are densely populated and the
landscape culturally influenced, but where native forest
remains are found species such as the birch Beʹtula
uʹtilis and various horse chestnut, maple, oak and
walnut species as well as the conifers Aʹbies
spectaʹbilis and Tsuʹga dumoʹsa. Himalayan
cedars, which are endemic in the western Himalayas, occur
here and there in the valleys.
Further east, the genera such as Lithocaʹrpus
(family beech plants), magnolias, holly and
Rhododeʹndrons, and many stock plants dominate instead.
In the most upland parts, the trees are replaced by lower
shrubs and herbs.
Snow leopards, blue sheep and yaks are rare on high
plateaus in the Himalayas. Piphars are quite common, and in
steeper areas there are himalayatahr (Hemiʹtragus
jemlaʹhicus), screw horns and goral, and in the
mountain forests further down the cat bear, collar bear and
Over 800 bird species have been observed. Birds of prey
are common, including lammergeier. In the mountain forests
there are, among other things, minivets, sunbirds and many
species of singers and timalias.
In the lowlands, the Chitwan National Park is famous for
armor and tiger. There are also Indian elephant, gaur, mouth
jackets, ax deer and sambar deer as well as mungo, leopard
and lip bear. Bird life includes: peacocks, parakeets,
beards, rhinoceros, storks and herons. Among the reptiles
there are king cobras and palm snakes.
Gavial and Ganges dolphins are rare in the Rapti and
Narayani rivers. The rivers also have a very large number of
carp fish species.
In 2010, Nepal had nine national parks, including Chitwan
(dry forest and open land with, for example, armor and
tiger) and Sagarmatha (Mount Everest).
|Sagamatha (Mount Everest)