Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Peru consists of three main geographical regions, all
extended in the northwest - southeast direction.
The westernmost is the coastal plain, which is a
narrow, 40-50 km wide, dry and desert coastal strip with the
desert of Sechura at the far north-west, tapered to the
southeast. The coastal plain has a large number of oases and
is crossed by a large number of short rivers, where,
however, only the ten largest, e.g. Santa, has something so
when smooth water flow. However, the river sludge has
created the most fertile soils in all of Peru.
The mountainous region of central Peru is part
of the Andes' long mountain range, where earthquakes and
volcanism occur. Granite solid, lavor and tough form high
areas over areas with sedimentary rocks. However, the
highest peaks are usually volcanic cones, e.g. Huascarán,
Peru's highest point, 6,768 m above sea level. Peru's
highland region consists of three parallel mountain ranges,
the West, Central and Eastern Cordillera. Along these, the
large rivers Marañón, Huallaga and Ucayali flow north and
unite in the Amazon River. In southern Peru's mountainous
land lies Puna, a plateau with several high peaks
such as Coropuna, 6,425 m above sea level, and the volcano
Misti, 5,822 m above sea level. At the far south-east is
Lake Titicaca, which is the highest lake in the world with
boat traffic, 3,812 m above sea level.
In northeastern Peru, a wooded lowland, which is
the largest region, forms part of the Amazon basin of
100–400 m above sea level. The lowlands are permeated by
many rivers that all flow into the Amazon River.
Elevation conditions and winds give very different
climatic conditions in the west and east. The coastal plain
is dry with a rainfall of about 50 mm per year and average
temperatures of 15–20 °C in July and 20–25 °C in January.
The cold Humboldt stream from the south prevents hot, humid
air from entering overland.
In the mountain region, the average temperature in
January is 14 °C and in July 1–8 °C. Snow falls in the
The lowland in the east has humid tropical climate with
27 °C as average temperature and a precipitation of
2,000–3,000 mm per year with a maximum in December – March.
An occasional water movement, El Niño, can affect the
normally rich fishing waters off Peru's northern coastline
and severely damage plant and animal life.
Along the coast of southern and central Peru, where the
sea fogs sweep in, one of the herb-dominated vegetation
known as loma is spreading. In drier
areas, cactus and pineapple plants dominate. The western
slopes of the Andes have a varied dryland vegetation. At
lower altitudes there are semi-deserts with pillar cacti and
deciduous shrubs and in their places also vegetation-free
desert areas. Instead, at higher altitude, evergreen shrubs
or extensive heaths, puna or jalca, which
in the north form a transition to páramo, dominate.
The most extreme environments in the highest mountain areas
have a rich flora of low, creeping or pillow-shaped plants
from many different plant families, which in many cases have
strikingly thick hair cover.
On the eastern side of the Andes the vegetation is even
more varied, with everything from evergreen shrub vegetation
and grasslands to tropical rainforest rich in. palm trees,
banana plants and cold plants such as monsters and
philodendrons. Along the rivers and at times flooded ground
occurs matral, a type of vegetation characterized
by scattered trees and dense, tall undergrowth of grass and
The fauna is extremely rich because of the very diverse
biotopes. Among other things, there are more than 1,700
species of birds (the richest country in the world) and
about 340 species of mammals.
The cold, nutritious Humboldt stream makes the sea very
rich in fish. Previously, many millions of tons of anchoveta
were caught annually. There are large colonies of brown
pelicans, cormorants and perusula (Suʹla peruviaʹna)
on coastal islands, including. The Ballesta Islands at
Paracas, and there are also South American fur seals and
South American sea lions.
In the Andes, nesting condor, and in the south there are
rare guanaco and vikunja. The lakes in the Andes have a very
rich bird life with, among other things, several species of
ducks, coots and dopings. Juniper (Poʹdiceps
taczanoʹwskii) is endemic to Lake Junin. Glasses bear
are found in the mountain forests on the eastern side of the
The rainforest is rich in, among other things. monkeys
(about 25 species), sloths, marshes, belts, jaguars and
navel pigs. All bird groups typical of South America are
represented; macaw parrots, trogons and toucans are common
locally. There are a large number of snakes, among others.
land snakes and kingsboa. Among the amphibians are leaf
frogs, arrow poison frogs and worm amphibians. In the rivers
there are the glasses caiman, many species of moths as well
as arapaima and arowana, in larger rivers also amazon
manate (Tricheʹchus inuʹnguis) and
amazonian dolphin (Iʹnia geoffreʹnsis).
In 2010, there were nine national parks in Peru. The
largest were Alto Purus (formed in 2004 for its great
biodiversity, diverse ecosystems, extremely beautiful places
and a harmonious relationship between man and nature), Manú
(encompasses everything from high-end Puna to rainforest and
belongs to the world's richest areas), Bahuaja-Sonene (wild
flora and fauna with many endangered animals) and Huascarán
(in the Andes with interesting highland flora). About 14% of
the country's area is under some form of nature protection.