Terrain shapes and bedrock
The interior of Romania is made up of a triangular
mountain country, Transylvania, which in the east and south
is bounded by the Carpathians. The rest of Romania's surface
consists of plains, mainly in the south and southeast, as
well as in the west as a continuation of the Hungarian
The Carpathians are an arcuate mountain range
that reaches into Romania from the north. The eastern
Carpathians are largely made up of dolomite and limestone,
whose weathering forms and lowering fields give a karst-like
touch to the landscape. Along its western edge stretches a
series of volcanic canons such as Oaș and Harghita. The
highest part is the Rodneiber mountains with a core of
crystalline rocks and a strong relief with the top Pietrosu,
2,305 m above sea level. The Transylvanian Alps (South
Carpathians) are built up of hard crystalline and volcanic
rocks. The highest peak, Moldoveanu, in the Făgăraș
Mountains is Romania's highest, 2,543 meters above sea
level. The southern slopes are cut by many tributaries to
the Danube, including the Danube. Jiu, Olt, Argeș and
Plateau areas are widely used in Romania. The
largest is the Trans-Silvanian Plateau at the angle between
the East and South Carpathians, which are drained westwards
by, among other things. the rivers Mureș and Someș. The
Moldovan Plateau lies between the Siret and Prut rivers in
the east at 500–700 m asl. Dobrogea in the southeast is a
steppe plateau country.
The plains occupy about a third of Romania's
surface; the largest are in Valakiet in the south, which is
covered by fertile loose soil. The Danube Delta is a
water-soaked plain between the three outlet arms.
COUNTRYAAH, Romania has a warm-tempered continental climate that
provides large temperature differences between summer and
winter. The topography also entails large local variations.
The summers are hot and the winters are cold. The rainfall
is rather small and decreases towards the Black Sea where it
is evenly distributed over the year. Inland has a rainfall
maximum during early summer. During the winter, the
precipitation falls mainly as snow that normally stays for
at least one month, up to three months in the mountains. The
Danube and other large rivers freeze during the winter.
A cold north- easterly wind, crivă vinter,
blows in winter over eastern Romania and a hot
south-westerly wind, austru, blows in over the
western parts in the summer.
The annual average temperature varies between 11 °C in
the south and east to 0 °C on the Carpathian peaks. In
July, the average temperature is 18–24 °C, in January
between 1 °C and –5 °C, with the lowest values in the
central mountain country.
The average annual rainfall is 650 mm, the largest amount
in early summer. In the Carpathians, however, falls up to
1,400 mm, while the coastal area on the Black Sea receives
on average 400 mm.
In the highest locations in the Carpathians and
Transylvania, vegetation is alpine. Here you will find many
grasses, semi-grasses and weeds, but also eg. creeping
boy, the mountain sip Dryʹas caucaʹsica,
rhododendrons and tibia species. At lower altitudes, moist
spruce and beech forests are spreading on the slopes, with
elements of noble spruce and beech, in which white frost,
Christmas rose, tooth root, lung herbs and herbs are
included in the lush undergrowth.
In the low-lying areas below the mountains, dry forests
dominate by oaks, lakes and deer ebooks. box with an
undergrowth of e.g. starches, dry herbs and onion plants.
Farthest to the east closest to the Black Sea is steppe
vegetation, where wormwood, grater, weevils, carnations and
spring grass (eg Stiʹpa ucraiʹnica in the far
south-east) dominate. In some places, mainly along the
Danube's lower course, there are sandy areas with a flora
composition similar to that found on sand dunes on the
Atlantic or Mediterranean. Here you will find beach rye,
sand pipes, beach quicksilver and beach cabbage.
Wildlife is rich because there are so many different
habitats in the country; the Carpathians and the Black Sea
region in particular are interesting. In the Carpathians,
for example, wolf, brown bear, lion, European wildcat, tar,
boar, king eagle, owl, white-backed and three-pointed
woodpecker, masonry creeper, mountain whistle and mountain
The Danube Delta is very bird-rich. Here are large
colonies of dwarf cormorants, great cormorants, herons (all
Europe's species except cow herds), bronze sibs, spoon
stork, pelican and - now very sparingly - mug-headed
pelican. White stork is common everywhere. Divided and
surrounding fields are also very important wintering sites
for ducks and geese, among others. red-necked goose.
Over 100 species of fish have been found in deltaic and
external waters of the Black Sea. moths and six species
disturb; the latter are caught for both their meat and rum,
from which caviar is prepared.
Among the most common frog and crawfish in the Black Sea
area are sea frog, bell frog, deciduous frog, green spotted
toad, Moorish land tortoise, marsh turtle, emerald lizard
In steppe areas and dry grasslands in the south-east
there are, among other things. steppe hawk, large staircase,
large foot, several species of larch, sisel, Romanian
hamster (Mesocriceʹtus newtoʹni), tiger rills
and golden shawls.
Romania has 11 national parks (2012), of which
Domogled-Valea Cernei, Retezat and Rodneibergen are the
largest. In addition, there are over 900 nature protected
areas of other kinds. Of the land area, 7%, and of the sea
area 33%, are protected in some form.