Terrain shapes and bedrock
The huge geographical extent of the Russian Federation
makes the landscape extremely varied. Plains have their
largest distribution in the northern parts, west of Jenisei,
while mountain scenery, plateaus and larger hill areas occur
most in the south and east within the Asian part.
The more than 2,500 km long Ural Mountains with the
highest peak Narodnaja (1,894 meters above sea level) divide
the lowland area into a western and an eastern part.
COUNTRYAAH, the eastern European plain west of the Ural
Mountains is Europe's largest lowland area with an average
height of about 170 meters above sea level. However, there
are hill areas and ridge ridges that reach more than 300
meters above sea level, for example the Valdaj and Volga
heights, as well as sinks along the Caspian Sea (28 meters
below sea level). Larger rivers that flow north to the
Arctic Ocean are, for example, Petjora and Severnaja Dvina.
The largest river, Volga, flows south, receives the
tributaries Oka and Kama and flows into the Caspian Sea.
Don, connected through a canal with Volga, winds down the
Tsimlian reservoir in Azovska Lake. Volga has also been
regulated and equipped with large reservoirs, such as the
Rybinsk, Gorky, Kuybyshev and Volgograd reservoirs. There
are many lakes, especially in the northwest, where the
largest are Ladoga and Onega.
Urbergs belonging to the Baltic Shield occur on the Kola
Peninsula and in Karelia. Further to the south and east, the
Russian platform takes on thick layers of sedimentary rocks
that slope slightly to the southeast. The southernmost parts
have bedrock from Mesozoic and Kenozoic.
Between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea lies the
Caucasus, an alpine mountain range made up of granites
and gneisses with limestone and sandstone in the north and
east. The highest peak Elbrus (5,642 meters above sea level)
is also the highest of the Russian Federation.
East of the Ural Mountains spreads in the north
western Siberian plain, which has an average height of
about 140 meters above sea level. Large areas at the far
north and along the rivers are very low and wooded. Ob with
the Irtysh tributary is the main river in this region and
flows between two long peninsula in the Cara Sea. The plain
has a bedrock of young sedimentary rocks. Jenisei is the
border of the plain in the east; where the Central
Siberian highland, which has an altitude of 500-700
meters above sea level, extends east to the river Lena. The
entire area is heavily ripped apart by rivers, such as
Jenisei's three major tributaries Angara, Rocky Tunguska and
Lower Tunguska. At the far north is the Tajmyr Peninsula
with Severnaja Zemlja's island world outside.
The bedrock consists of granite, gneiss and slates formed
under the Precambrian. Quilts of younger sedimentary rocks
are also present. In the south, the highlands are bounded by
a series of high mountain ranges from the Caledonian or
Varian mountain range, such as Altaj and the Sajan
Mountains. To the east of the Sajan Mountains there is a
rift area with Lake Baikal, which is the deepest lake in the
world, 1,940 m.
East of Lena, the eastern Siberian mountain country
spreads out towards the Bering Sea. The Verchojansk and
Cherskij mountains were folded under the Mesozoic as well as
Sichote-Alin in the south. The colony mountains as well as
the mountains of the Kamchatka and Tjuktjer peninsula along
the Pacific are younger formations.
Large-scale soils are tundra soils in the far north,
rocky soils in the highlands, pod soles of various kinds,
and black soils developed from the loose earth belt
deposited outside the quaternary inland ice's maximum
Most of the Russian Federation has a cold temperate
humid climate with a strong continental feel. The Ural
Mountains do not constitute a boundary line in the climate.
Along the Arctic Ocean is a belt with tundra climate.
Here, the summer temperature is below 10 ～ C and only the
surface layer in the soil thaws, while the permanent shingle
(permafrost) remains further down.
Even in the far south there are areas with different
climates, eg. along the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, where
there is a steep climate.
In other parts, the Russian Federation has cold winter
with an average temperature in January from −5 to −15 ～ C in
the western part and −20 to −40 ～ C in eastern Siberia. A
winter high pressure allows the temperature to drop to close
to −50 ～ C around Verchojansk, where the lowest has been
measured −69 ～ C. The high pressure also causes the rainfall
to be low. The average temperature for July in the western
part of the country is 17-20 ～ C, the furthest south is 25 ～
C. In the east, the summer temperature is 10-20 ～ C. The
annual rainfall in the west is 500-700 mm, but in the
Caucasus, however, much higher. In Siberia, it is 150-200 mm
furthest to the north, otherwise 350-450 mm except on the
still sea coast, where it is higher. It mostly falls in the
form of snow. provides some protection for the vegetation.
The vast territory of the Russian Federation has a rich
and varied flora. How many species are found is difficult to
estimate, but in the former Soviet Union, the number of
higher plant species was estimated to be about 40,000.
Farther north on the Arctic tundra, the vegetation is
treeless but rich in mosses, lichens, grass and rice.
Further south, bushes become more common, e.g. dwarf birch,
as well as scattered trees, such as spruce and various
The tajgan, which covers about 40% of the country's
surface, extends south of the tundra from the Baltic to the
Pacific. Vegetation in the west is dominated by spruce and
pine, but east of Jenisej by various larches. To the south
of the shark are various types of deciduous forests, which
in the European parts are dominated by five species of oak
and have elements of beech and chestnut. Large areas of the
European coniferous forest have been felled, with the result
that secondary deciduous forests with e.g. asp has been able
In Sakhalin and the Kurilas in the far east you will
find forests of noble spruce and ajangran (Piʹcea
jezoëʹnsis), which at higher altitudes are replaced by
dwarf birch, pine Piʹnus sibiʹrica and kamjatkab
birch (Beʹtula ermaʹnii). In this area,
deciduous forests are dominated by deer beeches, lime
trees and maples, and in the undergrowth there are
arali plants such as Siberian ginseng (Russian root) and
ginseng as well as the beautiful species of Korean azalea (Rhododeʹndron
schlippenbaʹchii). In some places, the herb vegetation
is very rich and lush, with many tall species from several
Those parts of the Eurasian steppe zone that have not yet
been cultivated are dominated by drought-resistant grasses
and semi-grasses, e.g. various spring grasses, oats and
starches. Large quantities of onion plants and annual herbs
bloom in the spring after the winter rains.
In the tundra many species breed waders, ducks and geese,
among others. red-necked goose, mountain goose and barley
goose. In the east also the gulls and the endangered snow
crane nest. Lizards - mountain lizards on the Kola
Peninsula, eastward Arctic necklace lizards (Dicrostoʹnyx
torquaʹtus) and Siberian lemmas (Leʹmmus sibiʹricus)
- are important food bases for, among other things. mountain
fox, lobster and mountain owl. The wilds graze on the
tundra, mainly in the summertime. Along the Arctic coast and
on remote islands there are walrus, polar bear and large
colonies of alk birds.
A large part of the bait animals stay within the region
all year round. For many, e.g. Crucibles, woodpeckers,
small-beaked nut crows and squirrels, coniferous seeds, in
particular of camber numbers, are an important food
resource. Moose, squirrel, flying squirrel, Siberian
ground squirrel (Taʹmias sibiʹricus), forest
hare, lo, red fox, Siberian river dill (Musteʹla
sibiʹrica), sable (now rare in the west), wolf,
wolverine, brown bear, jerky, tarp In the east are many
animal species, e.g. musk deer and black- beaked
tar (Teʹtrao parviroʹstris). The brown bear on
Kamchatka is Eurasia's largest brown bear (up to 680 kg).
There are also sea otters, and 2/3 of the world's population
of giant sea eagles (Haliaeetus [-iɛ: ʹe-]
pelaʹgicus) winter in the area. Lake Baikal has a
unique fauna; of about 2,500 animal species known to date
(many of which are crustaceans) are well over 1,000 endemic.
The fauna in the mixed forests of the European Russian
Federation is similar to the Central European, while the
furthest to the southeast (east of Amur-Ussuri) is
completely different and noticeably rich. There are tiger,
leopard, collar bear, Sikh deer, blue cat, mandarin duck and
many beautiful species of flycatcher.
In the non-cultivated steppe areas, burial rodents such
as sislings, rats, hamsters and steppe murmur predominate.
There is also saiga antelope. Among the birds are the big
stairs, small stairs, maidens, steppe whip, steppe hen,
steppe eagle and tatar falcon.
Bergen fauna is partly dependent on the bio-geographic
region as the region is located in. In Altay are woodchucks
bear, Capricorn, Argali, birch mouse (Sici'sta) and
altaisnöhöna (Tetraoga'llus alta'icus). In the
northeastern Siberian mountains, for example, live. Asian
snow sheep (Oʹvis niviʹcola), while king eagles are
found in all mountain areas.
In relation to its surface, the Russian Federation has
relatively few nature reserves (about 100 larger than 10 km2)
and national parks (41), some of which, however, are very
large. Among them are Tajmyrsky and Ostrov Vrangelja
(Wrangel Island) in the tundra zone, Pribajkalsky (Bajkal)
in the tajga zone, Kronotsky on Kamchatka and Altajsky in