Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, the islands of Samoa are of volcanic origin and are built
up of lava and rough but consist of the lower, coastal parts
of coral reefs. The islands are surrounded by coral reefs
and lagoons. The two major main islands are high and
mountainous. The highest point, Mauga Silisili, lies on the
Savai'i, reaching 1,858 m above sea level. The volcanic
activity that has given rise to the islands has moved
westward in relation to the seabed, which is why the islands
in the east are the oldest. Savai'i has had volcanic
eruptions in historical times, in 690 and 1905-11. Lava
plateaus and coastal plains made up of lava are the remains
of these eruptions. Upolu, the second major island, has a
central, volcanic ridge, about 1,100 m above sea level.
Crater lakes occur and receive their water from the abundant
rainfall, which also gives rise to fast-flowing streams with
The volcanic soil is fertile but porous, leaches easily
and then quickly loses its nutrient content.
The islands are located in the tropical climate belt and
are exposed to the southeast pass most of the year, which is
why the rainfall is very abundant. However, it is unevenly
distributed: about 3,000 mm per year falls on the north and
west sides, while the mountains on the praise side get up to
7,000 mm per year. The annual average temperature is 26 °C
with very little variation during the year. Typhoons are
common, mainly during December to March.
Plant-and animal life
The original flora is of an oceanic type. On the volcanic
soils of the interior of the islands, dense rainforests
grow, often with many species of the genus Fiʹcus,
whose fruits constitute important food for fruit pigeons. At
the beaches, coconut trees, palm trees and sometimes bread
fruit trees dominate.
The domestic mammalian fauna comprises only three species
of bats, including two species of flying dogs. More than 40
species of birds breed (including six species of pigeons),
and eight of these are endemic. tooth pigeon (Diduʹnculus
strigiroʹstris) and a kingfisher species. There are
eight species of reptiles but no amphibians. The marine
fauna is rich with coral reefs in several places; here are
the biologically interesting species of palolomask.
In 2011, there were two national parks, O Le Pupu Pu'e
and Lanoto'o, and five rainforest reserves. Four of the
reserves have largely been created thanks to funds collected
Samoa's two main islands; Savaii and Upolu, are the peaks
of a chain of volcanoes, which rises to 1858 meters above
sea level. at Savaii (Mauga Silisili). The islands are
largely made up of lava with coral reefs along the coast.
Savaii is geologically the youngest of the islands, and had
several volcanic eruptions in the early 1900s. The main
island of Upolu has a central volcanic mountain range that
reaches 1113 meters above sea level. (Mount Fito). The main
islands have several crater lakes which are filled by the
abundant rainfall and contribute to many watercourses and
waterfalls. The other islands are smaller and lower, and
Rose Island is an atoll.
The country has tropical rainy climate; the annual
rainfall in the capital Apia is approx. 3000 mm, mostly in
December-April. In southeastern mountain slopes the annual
rainfall can be 6000-7000 mm. The average temperature is
26-27 ° C with small seasonal variations. Tropical
hurricanes can pass the islands in the period December-March
and cause major devastation. Hurricane Val in 1992 caused
Read more about Plant life in Samoa and Wildlife in
Plant life in Samoa
The islands are covered in evergreen rainforest with,
among other things, coconut palms, screw palms, Barringtonia
species, vines and ferns. In low lying areas there is swamp
and mangrove vegetation. On Savaii, there are large, barren
Wildlife on Samoa
Flying dogs and bats are the only naturally occurring
land mammals in Samoa. Mankind has introduced rats and pigs,
among other things.
37 terrestrial birds include peregrine, matrices, pigeons
and some indigenous passerines. The unique tooth pigeon is
found only in wooded mountain sides on Savaii and Upolu.
Frigatebirds, tropikfugler, boobies, sooty and Noddies are
the main seabirds.
The 19 reptile species include lizards such as geckos and
hams, as well as a stray snake (boa) on land and sea
turtles and snakes along the coast.
Amphibians do not occur, but more than 400 species of
fish live in coastal areas.
Butterflies and rhino beetles are characteristic insects.
Day flies, spring flies and termites have their easternmost
occurrence in the Pacific region of Samoa.