Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Sri Lanka is separated from India by the narrow and
shallow Pole Strait. Most of the country is lowland.
Particularly extensive is the lowland to the north. The
country has plenty of coral reefs. at the Jaffna Peninsula
in the north. Except in the southwest, the coast has long
beach tracks with lagoons, sand dunes and damp sinks inside.
To the east are wavy plains with isolated mountains. The
central highlands are the most prominent topographic feature
on the island. The highest point, Pidurutalagala, reaches
2,524 m above sea level, while the more famous and visited
Adam's Peak is 2,243 m above sea level.
Nearly 9/10 of the bedrock is made up of gneiss and slate
from the Precambrian. Jurassic clay and sandstone occur, as
do some coal. In the north and northwest it is mainly
limestone from tertiary. Sri Lanka has many but relatively
short rivers that flow radially from the highlands, often
with series of waterfalls. At the far end is Mahaveli, 332
km. The soil is mostly lateritic, and on the coasts there is
Sri Lanka has a humid tropical climate, where the rainy
monsoons are slightly modified by the relief and location
near India. Precipitation varies between 1,000 and 5,000 mm
per year; most get the southwest and high-lying parts, while
the northwest and southeast parts are arid (less than 500 mm
of precipitation per year).
The southwest monsoon blows May - October, the northeast
monsoon December - March, but the winds are often irregular.
The average temperature is 27 ～ C during the year, in the
high inland 18 ～ C. The temperature during the day varies no
more than 4 ～ C. The humidity is high.
Most of the country consists of forested land, but
monsoon forests are found here and there in the eastern
parts. There are also several open dry fields and savannas.
Tropical rainforest is limited to small areas in the humid
areas of the southwest.
The lowland rainforest, which reaches about 1000 m above
sea level, is rich in genera such as Dipterocaʹrpus,
Shoʹrea (family dipterocarpus plants), Meʹsua
(family clusia plants), Palaʹquium (family
sapotillas) and Viʹtex (family verbenavx). These
forests also house several important herbs, e.g. wild
At altitudes above 1,000 m you can find mountain
rainforests with, among other things, Liʹtsea
(family of stock plants), Micheʹlia (family of
magnolia plants), Gordoʹnia (family of plants) and
species of the endemic genus Stemonoʹporus (family
of dipterocarpus plants). In the highlands, open grasslands
and forests with low-growing trees are spread. different
There are mangroves here and were along the coasts.
A relatively large proportion of the fauna is endemic:
amphibians 19 (of 39 species), reptiles 75 (of 145), mammals
12 (of 86), birds 20 (of 220 breeding; a total of more than
400 species have been observed), freshwater fish 17 (of 64)
and day butterflies 41 (of 242).
Indian elephant has good tribes on the island, mainly in
lower lying dry areas. The country's national parks have
largely been created for the elephants, so for example.
Ruhuna (Yala) National Park in the southeast. Leopard and
lip bear are common locally, among other things. in the
Wilpattu National Park in the northwest. Gold shawls and
wild boar are scattered. There are four species of deer,
including sambar and ax deer. Of the primates, ceylon
macaque (Macaʹca siʹnica) and white-bearded langur
(Presbyʹtis seʹnex) are endemic, while the cavern
and slender lori are more prevalent.
In and around watercourses there is swamp crocodile and
the bandage, around the coasts also delta crocodile.
Sri Lanka has a rich bird life, not least winter time.
More spectacular species include peacocks, Indian paradise
flycatchers (Terpsiphoʹne paradiʹsi), Malabarna
hornbird (Anthracoʹceros coronaʹtus) and shamatrast
(Coʹpsychus malabaʹricus), which is considered one
of the world's most beautiful birds.
In 2009, approximately 26% of the country's area was
protected by nature; inter alia there were 20 national