Vanuatu consists partly of islands of volcanic origin and
partly of coral islands. The islands often have a rugged
inland with relatively high coral plateaus. They are located
in a geologically unstable zone and are frequently exposed
to earthquakes. Several of the islands have active
volcanoes. The highest point is Mont Tabwémasana (1879 masl)
on the island of Espíritu Santo (3680 km 2),
which is the country's largest island.
The climate is tropical maritime, moderated by the
southeastern pass in the period May-October. The rest of the
year the wind directions are variable, and hurricanes are
relatively frequent in the period November-April. The annual
rainfall varies from 2300 mm in the south to approx. 4000 mm
to the north; the average temperature in the capital Vila is
22 ° C in August and 27 ° C in February.
Plant and Wildlife at Vanuatu
All the islands are covered by dense tropical rainforest
with tall trees, ferns, vines and orchids. In the southern
islands there are open grasslands. Some of the islands have
swamp and mangrove vegetation along parts of the coast.
The only naturally occurring mammal is 12 bat species.
The fly dog Pteropus fundatus is the native
(endemic). The sea cow dugong is found in the coastal
In addition to the seabirds, there are 60 species of
terrestrial and freshwater birds. Several of these are
native, among others. vanuatu oven chicken, fruit pigeon,
emperor pigeon, iceberg and monarch. In addition, there are
many parakeets, stares and goggles. In the seabird colonies,
vanuatupetrell, red-tailed tropic bird and worm sole.
22 species of reptiles, including native geckos and hams.
70 butterfly species and 75 land snail species, of which the
majority are native. More than 200 species of fish are
common in coastal waters.
Most of the islands in Tuvalu are atolls with lagoons in
the middle and slightly raised coral reefs at the edges.
Four of the islands, Nanumanga, Niutao, Vaitupu and
Niulakita, are more compact but have coral reefs along the
coast. None of the islands reach more than about 5 m above
sea level. The prevailing wind is the southeast pass, but
during the summer in November - February there are sometimes
western storms. However, tropical storms are rare. The
average temperature in the capital Fongafale varies between
27 °C in July and 29 °C in January. The annual rainfall in
Fongafale is 4,000 mm, but the northern islands usually
receive lower precipitation, about 2,500 mm per year. The
tree flora consists mainly of coconut trees, screw palms and
breadfruit trees. Higher wildlife is poor and includes in
addition to polynesia rats (Raʹttus eʹxulans)
lizards. However, the coral reef has a rich wildlife.
In March 2015, tropical cyclone Pam pulled over Tuvalu,
causing major devastation, mainly on the outer islands.
COUNTRYAAH, Tuvalu had no nature protected areas in 2011 and had not
signed the Convention on Biological Diversity.
The atolls are low, no one is over 5 meters above sea
level. Not everyone has passages through the coral reefs;
there are few natural harbors. The soil is rocky.
Tuvalu has a humid, equatorial climate; the capital
Fongafale has an average temperature of 28.9 ° C in January,
27.2 ° C in July and 4000 mm of rainfall. The most rainy
month is January with 400-500 mm; June - August is the
Tuvalus plant and animal life
The vegetation consists mainly of coconut and screw palm
Polynesia rats are the only naturally occurring land
mammals, but both humpback whales and dolphins occur in the
ocean around the islands. 40 species of birds have been
observed, of these 9 seabirds and 4 land birds. Of the
seabirds may be mentioned small tropical birds, red-footed
sole, soot, black-necked and silketeers, as well as brown
and black-noddy. The most common terrestrial birds are
tubercock pigeon and long tail cow (a cuckoo), the bankiv
cock has been introduced. Some waders appear on the move and
The reptile fauna includes geckos and hams, sea turtles
and several species of poisonous sea snakes.