Terrain shapes and bedrock
The coast towards the Persian Gulf is a smoothed tidal
coast with coral reefs and wide, flat and vegetation-free
deposits with the character of salt deserts, so-called
sabkha. The tidal currents are constantly changing the
appearance of the coast and the islands. The coastal area
has a bedrock of oil-rich, sedimentary rocks that towards
the Hormuz Strait are getting older. Along the eastern coast
of the Musandam Peninsula south of the Hormuz Strait, the
Hajar mountain range with peaks around 2,000 m asl extends.
COUNTRYAAH, most of the United Arab Emirates is made up of the huge
sand desert Rub al-Khali with elongated dunes with
northeast-southwest extension. Occasional wadis and oases,
e.g. The Liwao oasis, interrupts the desert landscape.
The United Arab Emirates has a dry desert climate. The
rainfall is usually between 75-100 mm per year, but fogs
from the coast can somewhat alleviate the drought. A sandy
wind, shamal, blows from the north and northwest, especially
at the turn of the year and early summer. The average
temperature in January is around 18 ～ C and in July around
33 ～ C, but can reach as high as 46 ～ C.
Plant-and animal life
The plant life is sparse and consists mostly of
shrub-covered amaranth plants, euphorbios and
Zygophyʹllum species as well as small populations of
acacias and the Mesquite family Prosoʹpis cineraʹria.
In the oases, date palms and the blue louse are cultivated.
Along the east coast is the oldest mangrove forest in the
Of the approximately 25 species of mammals, desert rats
dominate, but there are also predators such as red fox and
fennel. About 70 species of birds nest, and on the north
coast around Dubai, large numbers of waders, or antlers,
desert whip and heron whistle, rest or winter. In the
hinterland several species of larch breed, and in winter
desert scrub and desert singers are common.
Of the approximately 40 species of reptiles, there are
hornworms and dabbagams. Three species of sea turtles visit
the beaches to lay eggs, and in coastal waters there are
dugong. Outside the rich coral reefs there are plenty of
Spanish mackerel (Scoʹmber japoʹnicus) and
temporary tuna and whales.
In 2010, the United Arab Emirates had a national park and
two areas with a lower degree of nature protection.