Terrain shapes and bedrock
In several respects, Uruguay is a transitional area
between Brazil's highlands and Pampa's plains in Argentina.
The southeastern part is a low mountain plateau with arcuate
ridges that rise significantly above the plateau surface.
The largest of them is Cuchilla Grande. Uruguay's highest
point is Catedral, 513 meters above sea level. In central
Uruguay, crystalline shales are mostly overlain by fairly
loose shales and sandstones from the Permian and Mesozoic.
The river Río Negro, which crosses the country, has cut
down its wide canal, and through built dams large artificial
lakes have been formed. Further north, the back Cuchilla de
Haedo extends across the country. Along the border with
Brazil there are some mountains; inter alia heights of red
sandstone, partly covered by basalt, extend into northern
Along the Atlantic coast, a low and fairly wide coastal
plain is spreading. It is built up by flying sand, which
forms long lines of dunes, and also has large, shallow beach
lakes, the largest of which is the Mirin lagoon. Along the
border with Argentina flows the Uruguay River, which is the
largest river. It opens in the great estuary of Río de la
Loose soil occurs and is important as it is transformed
into fertile soils.
COUNTRYAAH, Uruguay has a temperate climate with an average
temperature of 22 °C in January (summer) and 10 °C in
July. The rainfall is 800–1,000 mm per year and falls mainly
in the fall (April – May). The weather is extremely
variable, due to low pressure and storm centers passing. A
cold breeze from the southwest, pampero, can cause sudden
temperature drops. Thunderstorms are common, as are fogs in
Most of it is an open, grassy prairie landscape, a
continuation of Pampas in Argentina. The landscape is partly
culturally created and the original tree and string
vegetation was previously significantly denser. Nowadays
there are gallery forests with low trees along the rivers,
while it is mainly in the northern parts that you find
denser forests with species such as Iʹlex
paraguarieʹnsis (the family of holly plants) and
paranatals (Araucaʹria brasiliaʹna, the family of
araucaria plants). The southernmost parts are largely
The mammalian fauna is poor with only about 60
terrestrial species, including rodents and bats. There are
no primates and only two species each of ungulates and
marsupials. Among the twelve species of predators are the
margay cat, Geoffroy's cat (Leopaʹrdus geoffroyi
[-rɔ in ʹi]), pumpkin cat, common rhino
(Naʹsua naʹsua) and crab- eating raccoon (Proʹcyon
cancriʹvorus). There are about 22 species of rodents,
among others. capy, swamp beaver and three species of rats.
A total of 20 species of whales have been observed on the
coasts, laplate dolphin in Río de la Plata.
The bird fauna is also poor with about 240 breeding
species. Ordinary nandu is still rare on Pampas; there are
also several species of bird birds, and the owl owl is quite
common. In the forest areas there are several species of
parrots. Frogs and reptiles are few, but there is an endemic
species in each group.
In 2010, there were seven areas called national parks;
their main purpose, however, is only to protect the
landscape. In total, less than half a percent of the
country's area enjoyed some form of nature protection.