Terrain shapes and bedrock
Along the Caribbean Sea, the mostly mountainous North
Coast region is spreading. At the far north it
consists of a narrow coastal plain that widens to the west
around the faults of Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of
Venezuela. Here there are large swamps and good oil supply
in the sedimentary bedrock. Along the coast there are a
number of islands, including. Margarita. Lake Maracaibo is
surrounded by two branches of the Andes; in the west Sierra
de Perijá and in the east Cordillera de Mérida, whose
highest peak, Pico Bolívar, reaches 5 007 m above sea level.
The coastal mountains run as a continuation of the latter
towards the east. It has peaks over 2,500 meters above sea
level. and goes out into the Paria Peninsula, just west of
Trinidad. The coastal region houses the majority of the
Llanos Plains region, only about 300 m above,
extends to the south and is particularly wide in the
southwest where it includes Orinoco's valley and extends
into the large swampy delta. Orinoco is the dominant river,
and part of its water is passed over to Río Negro through
the bifurcation arm Casiquiare.
COUNTRYAAH, Southeastern Venezuela is occupied by the highlands
of Guiana with several peaks over 2,500 meters
above sea level. These are parts of an underground shield
with large granite masses, partly covered by loose deposits
that have been eroded into hills with high slopes.
Angelfallen, the world's highest waterfall, is here.
The soil is mostly leached laterites; more lime-rich soil
is found near the Andes.
Venezuela has a tropical climate with small temperature
differences during the year. On the coast, the average
temperature for January is about 25 °C, for September 28 °C, while the altitude areas are a few degrees lower
temperature. In the coastal area, where the northeast
passage winds year-round, about 500 mm of precipitation
falls annually. Llanos and Guyana have rainy season during
April – October and dry season from November to March, which
gives savanna climate except in a smaller area off the
Atlantic coast, which has rainforest climate. On all sides
of the mountains, rain falls at all times, up to 3,800 mm
Along the coast and in the northwestern parts, bushland
with cactus plants, thorny pea plants and capers is
dominated. The central parts are dominated by the open
grasslands of Llanos, in which the occasionally flooded
parts are rich in strip plants and palm trees. Mangroves are
found on the coast; otherwise, deciduous forests occur in
arid areas and rainforests or fog forests in rainier areas
in the mountains.
The evergreen rainforest, which mainly occurs in the
southeastern part, is rich in species both in the tree layer
and in the undergrowth. In the Andes there is at high
altitude (over 3,000 m above sea level) the damp mountain
páramo with, among other things. Espeletia species
adapted to the harsh climate.
Perhaps most interesting is the shrub vegetation on the
inaccessible plateau mountains (tepuis) in the highlands
of Guyana, which are very rich in endemic, often
systematically isolated species and the genus. A family that
is characteristic of the open spaces of these peaks is the
unicorn leaf Rapateaʹceae.
The fauna is rich with more than 300 species of mammals,
about 1,300 breeding species of birds, about 260 species of
reptiles, about 200 species of amphibians and more than
1,000 species of fish.
There are five species of cat animals, including
jaguarundi, margay cat and ozelot, and three species of dog,
namely bush dog, gray fox and mahogong (Cerdoʹcyon thous
[tu: s]). All four marsh species and four species of bed
bugs are found in the forests or on the savannahs, as well
as capuchin monkeys, crab monkeys, lowland tapestries, navel
pigs and tip deer. In the estuaries and along the coast, the
siren lives the lamantine.
Many neotropical bird groups are common, including macaw
parrots, hummingbirds, mannequins, ant birds, trogons and
oven birds, and in some caves, nesting oil birds. In some
protected bird-rich areas near the coast (where snake birds,
egrets and ibis nest, for example), lace crocodile
(Crocodyʹlus acuʹtus) has its strongest mounts in
the world. Orinococrocodile (Crocodyʹlus intermeʹdius)
is found only in the river Orinoco and is now very rare.
Other sea creatures include sea turtle, king's nest,
anaconda, coral worms, land snakes and anise lizards. Among
amphibians are among others. paradox frogs, pipe frogs,
arrow poison frogs and many species of leaf frogs.
The fish fauna is rich, with among other things.
dragonflies, arapaima (furthest south), pirayas and many
species of freshwater moths and four-eyed fish in estuaries.
The high plateaus and savannas in the south have a unique
animal world with a large proportion of endemic species.
As many as 22% of Venezuela enjoy nature conservation
through 43 National Parks (2010). The two largest are Parima
Tapirapecó and Canaima. Also mentioned are Henri Pittier
(many forest types with rich bird fauna) and Sierra Nevada
(dry mountain landscape).