In terms of economy, Estonia relied on the creation of medium-sized peasant farms (expropriation of the predominantly German landed property in 1919) and the expansion of the burning slate industry. Agricultural products as well as oils, gasoline and asphalt were exported to Germany and Great Britain. Great efforts have been made successfully in culture, science and education.
Estonia in World War II – Soviet annexation and German occupation
As a result of the Hitler-Stalin Pact (August 23, 1939), Soviet troops occupied bases in Estonia on June 17, 1940, which was annexed to the USSR on August 6, 1940, in violation of international law as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic after a forced government reshuffle and sham elections. The repression in the course of Sovietization reached a climax on June 14, 1941, when 11,000 public figures were deported to Siberia. From the summer of 1941 to 1944 the country was under German occupation.
Soviet rule and sovereignty movement – the »Estonian SSR« (1940 / 44–1990)
Before the Soviet Army recaptured the Baltic States in September 1944, around 69,000 Estonians fled into exile. Today they live mainly in the USA, Canada and Sweden. The collectivization of agriculture was carried out as early as 1949 to weaken the partisan movement (“Forest Brothers”). It was linked to the second mass deportation. Large all-union companies were established in Estonia, which were directly subordinate to the Moscow ministries and which made it necessary to recruit Russian workers. Estonia had the highest standard of living in the Soviet Union.
After 45 years of occupation, the policy of glasnost and perestroika introduced with M. S. Gorbachev’s accession to power offered for the first time the opportunity to express public protests against the environmental damage caused by the Union combines, against forced industrial settlements, Russian immigration and national oppression. A first mass demonstration on August 23, 1987 in Hirve Park in Tallinn was followed in 1988 in the year of the Singing Revolution; In addition to a nationally oriented society for monument protection, the National Independence Party (August 20, 1988), which advocated the restoration of full statehood, and the Popular Front in support of perestroika (Rahvarinne, October 1, 1988), which advocated sovereignty, arose Estonia used in the Union of the USSR. On November 16, 1988, the Supreme Soviet of Estonia issued a “declaration of sovereignty” decreing that the laws of the republic take precedence over the laws of the Union. When all attempts to achieve greater sovereignty failed in the following year, the pursuit of independence intensified. On August 23, 1989, the 50th anniversary of the Hitler-Stalin Pact, Estonians, together with Latvians and Lithuanians, expressed their will for freedom in a 600 km long human chain from Tallinn to Riga to Vilnius. After the electoral victory of the Popular Front (over two thirds of all parliamentary seats), the Supreme Council of Estonia proclaimed on March 30, 1990 its will to restore independence after a transitional period; Parts of the 1938 constitution were reinstated, the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed the “Republic of Estonia” and Estonian was once again made the state language.
June 20, 2005, but due to a preamble passed there with reference to the annexation of 1940, Russia refused to ratify it in the same month. On June 11, 2008, Parliament approved the The negotiations for which the negotiations were already concluded in 1999, was signed on May 18, 2005 in Moscow; the Estonian parliament approved the treaty on June 20, 2005, but due to a preamble passed there with reference to the annexation of 1940, Russia refused to ratify it in the same month. On June 11, 2008, Parliament approved the The negotiations for which the negotiations were already concluded in 1999, was signed on May 18, 2005 in Moscow; the Estonian parliament approved the treaty on June 20, 2005, but due to a preamble passed there with reference to the annexation of 1940, Russia refused to ratify it in the same month. On June 11, 2008, Parliament approved the Lisbon Treaty. In 2010, Estonia became a member of the OECD. The euro was introduced on January 1, 2011. Relations with Russia remained tense. In 2016, Estonia repeatedly accused Russia of airspace violations by military aircraft. At its summit in Warsaw in July 2016, NATO decided to station a multinational battalion in Estonia. It was in line with a request made by the Estonian government, which felt threatened against the background of Russian activities in the Ukraine conflict.
According to computerminus, Estonia, Estonian Eesti, officially Estonian Eesti Vabariik, German Republic of Estonia, is a state in the north of the Baltic region with (2018) 1.3 million residents; The capital is Tallinn.