Terrain shapes and bedrock
The two islands show similarity to the geological structure of the mainland. According to COUNTRYAAH, the Northern Range in Trinidad is a direct continuation of the long Paria Peninsula mountain in Venezuela. It is built mainly of crystalline slates and reaches the highest elevation of Aripo Trinidad and Tobago, 940 m above sea level. The middle part of Trinidad is lower with a lot of swamps and is a continuation of the Gulf of Paria. However, a high ridge of chalk rocks, the Central Range, with its highest point Tamana 308 m above, goes over the area. A third mountain ridge in the northeast – southwest, the Southern Range, follows the south coast of the island.
In Tobago, the mountain ridge dominates Maine Ridge, which is a continuation of the Northern Range in Trinidad. It reaches 594 meters above sea level. at the top Parlatuvier. Outside southwest Tobago are several coral reefs.
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Trinidad and Tobago have a tropical climate with high humidity. Dry season is January-May and September-October. The average annual rainfall is 1,800 mm. In January and February the average temperature is 24 °C. The warmest months, April, May and October, are 27-29 °C. There is usually a large temperature difference between day and night. The prevailing wind is the northeast passage.
Plant-and animal life
The flora and fauna of Trinidad and Tobago have great similarities to Venezuela’s. Large parts of the mountain ridges of Tobago and eastern Trinidad are covered with tropical rainforests. In the lowlands of western Trinidad there are very rich forests of the closest monsoon forest type, partly with deciduous trees. There are many palm trees and valuable tree species (also introduced, such as teak and rubber trees). Cultural landscapes or savannahs dominate in some areas, and along rivers and coasts there are mangroves.
About 10% of the 2,250 known species of vascular plants are endemic. Of the 100 species of native mammals, about 65% are bats. Other include seven species possums, primate red HOWLER (Aloua’tta seni’culus) and wedge-capped capuchin (Ce’bus oliva’ceus), predators crab-eating raccoon (Pro’cyon cancri’vorus), neotropisk river otter (Lu’tra longicaudis [-ka u ‘-]), Tayra and ozelot, ungulates neck pointer and red lizard deer (Mazaʹma americaʹna) as well as invertebrate southern tamandua (Tamaʹndua tetradaʹctyla), dwarf antler and nine-banded belt (Daʹsypus novemciʹnctus).
There are about 260 species of nesting birds, among others. stubble-tailed chickens, parrots, hummingbirds, trogons, ant birds, tyrants, mannequins and tangars. In some cave systems, oil birds nest. Of reptiles there are many species of anise lizards and bushmasters, anaconda and land snakes. There is one endemic mammal species, one endemic bird species and two endemic species of each amphibian and snake.
In 2009, Trinidad and Tobago had no national parks but six major ones and a number of smaller nature conservation areas.