Terrain shapes and bedrock
The country's topography varies greatly and different
natural regions can be clearly discerned.
The central landform region is a hill and mountain
landscape that extends in the north-south direction
between the coast and the Jordan Valley, mainly within the
West Bank occupied by Israel. The highest portions reach
800-1000 meters above sea level. The bedrock is mainly
limestone from younger Cretaceous. Further north, the
mountain landscape continues in the Carmel mountain range
(546 m above sea level), a horst that cuts obliquely towards
the Mediterranean coastline and rises markedly over the
Yizreel plain, a narrow corridor that joins the coastal
plain with the Jordan Valley. Galileen's topography is also
marked in the far north by numerous east - west fault lines.
COUNTRYAAH, the Earth Valley forms a long, deep and narrow
fault basin that forms a northern part of the fault in and
along the Red Sea. From the north to the south you can see
Lake Kinnerets (210 m uh), the lower Jordan Valley between
the West Bank and Jordan, the Dead Sea (412 m uh) and the
Arava Valley (Wadi Araba), which at Eilat goes out in the
A third major region is the Negev in southern
Israel. Farther south in this desert area lies the Eilat
Hills, which are built up by the oldest rocks in the
country, Precambrian gneisses, granites and diorites, and to
the north the red Nubian sandstone. Further north follows
the Paran Plateau, the Negev Hills with the top Ramon (1,035
m above sea level) and the Beer Sheva Basin with the
distinct hills of Ramon, Gadol and Qatan.
The coastal plain of the Mediterranean is a
narrow region that is crossed by several smaller rivers,
e.g. Yarqon and Qishon. The coastline is straight, except at
Carmel, with a beach of dunes and sandstone ridges.
The soil in Israel varies from loose soil around Beer
Sheva, alluvial soils in the plains and sandy soils in the
deserts to calcareous terra ross as a thin layer of soil in
the central mountain landscape.
Israel's location creates a distinct Mediterranean
climate with winter rain and summer drought. The annual
average temperature for the country is 20 ～ C. January is
the coldest month with 8-10 ～ C for the coastal land and 12
～ C for the coastal plain and 12-13 ～ C for the Jordandalen.
August is warmest with 22-26 ～ C for the hill region, 24-26
～ C for the coastal plain and 28-34 ～ C for the Jordandalen.
The rainfall is highest in the north (1,100 mm per year),
lowest in the Jordandalen (100 mm) and in Eilat (25 mm). The
winds are moderate; in the summer, however, the sea breeze
blows regularly during the day and the occasional hot fall
In the country, there are offshoots from four rather
distinct flora areas, which leads to an unusually high
species richness. Israel together with Jordan has about
2,400 species of vascular plants, but the number is not much
lower for Israel alone. The coastal land and the mainly
west-facing mountain slopes through Jerusalem are covered by
Mediterranean vegetation, originally forests of alpine pine,
kermesek and deciduous oaks. The forest is now almost
entirely replaced by crops or different varieties of
bushland; taller and denser macchia with kermesek and
eastern strawberries (Aʹrbutus andreʹchne)
or lower and more open batha, corresponding to the
Greek frog, with small, sparsely growing shrubs such as the
ginger relative Calycoʹtome villoʹsa and the
rose plant Sarcopoteʹrium spinoʹsum. In this open
secondary vegetation, the species number per unit area is
among the highest in the world for arid areas, comparable to
California's. Especially many are annual wicker plants and
Inside the Mediterranean area, in parts of the Jordan
Valley and the Negev, there is a belt with a more
continental climate and a flora of Iranian-Turan nature.
Here, perennial wood species are important.
The drier parts of the Negev Desert are counted in the
Saharan Arabian region, with many annual herbs that are
widely distributed and common with Egypt, e.g. the pea
plant Trigoneʹlla stellaʹta. The lower Jordan Valley
and its continuation south of the Dead Sea, the Arava
Valley, contains a lot of tropical species from the
Sudano-Deccan flora area, including. trees such as acacias
and the tulip plant Caloʹtropis proceʹra. Unlike
most Mediterranean species, they are often summer blooming.
In the country, European, West Asian and North African
fauna meet, which is why Israel is rich, although much of
wildlife has been depleted in tandem with a multi-millennial
biotope transformation. The mammalian fauna includes, among
other things, wild boar, Dorcas gazelle (few in Negev),
Nubian Capricorn (Caʹpra iʹbex nubiaʹna), wildcat,
caracal, leopard (few), golden shawl, striped hyena, sand
fox, red fox, wolf (few), otters, genus, small vulture
capeʹnsis. Lions, cheetahs and brown bears were present
in late times but are now extinct.
About 475 species of birds have been observed. There are
a range of species that do not normally occur in Europe,
e.g. green bee eaters, smyrnak kingfishers, gray
fishermen, garden bulbyls and Israeli sunbirds
(Nectariʹnia oseʹa). During spring and autumn,
Israel is passed by large numbers of migratory birds, among
other things. birds of prey and storks, from and to
wintering areas in Africa. During the spring, concentrations
are particularly high around Eilat at the Red Sea's
northeastern tip. The kräldjurs fauna is rich with, among
other things. French finger lizards and dabbagamer. Nil
crocodile was formerly but is now extinct. In the Red Sea
there are very rich coral reefs with, among other things. a
colorful fish fauna.
In 2011, Israel had more than 60 national parks, both
historical monuments and natural areas. With the exception
of pests and some hunting species, all of the country's
mammals and birds are protected.