Terrain shapes and bedrock
Geological structures and relief features in Tunisia have
a direction in the northeast – southwest. This means that
the drainage is directed to the northeast and that the long
coastline is irregular, especially in the north. To the
northeast lies the Gulf of Tunis with the long Cape Bon
Peninsula on its eastern side, further south to Hammamat Bay
and Lilla Syrten, the latter with the Qirqina Islands and
the island of Jarba.
The northern part of Tunisia consists of the mountain
country of Dorsale, which mainly consists of foothills
from the Atlas Mountains. The highest peak, Jabal Shambi
(Jabal ash-Shanabi) at 1,554 m above sea level, is close to
the border with Algeria. Between the Dorsale and the coastal
mountains in the north, Kroumirie, the river system
al-Majrada (Medjerda) is spreading with, among other things.
the tributary of the Mellègue.
South of the mountainous area of northern Tunisia, a
steep plain of 200-500 m spreads. Further south
there is a lake area with shallow salt lakes
(chott), i.e. the great Shatt al-Jarid (Chott Djerid).
The southernmost part of Tunisia is occupied in the west
by the Sahara masses (Great Eastern Sand Desert). The
eastern part is occupied by the Dahar Plateau, which
continues into Libya. In Matmata in the northern part there
are rock deposits with carved, half-cylinder-shaped caves,
which give the residents protection from heat and dust
storms. A wide coastal plain spreads southeast of Gabès.
COUNTRYAAH, Tunisia has a warm temperate climate of the Mediterranean
type, which turns south into steep and desert climate. The
rainfall falls during the winter, which is mild. Summer is
dry and hot. The average temperature for January is 11 °C
and for August 27 °C.
The rainfall varies greatly: in the north, 800 mm per
year falls, in the south 100–400 mm. Northwest winds
prevail, but the proximity to the Sahara causes sciroccon to
blow at times, especially in the south.
Nearest to the Mediterranean, Tunisia is largely
cultivated and culturally influenced and exhibits a long
line of striking but introduced plant species, such as agave
and figonopuntia. However, the flora in the coastal area is
very rich in species that are widely distributed in North
Africa and southern Europe, including many orchids as well
as pea plants, wreath plants, wicker plants and amaryllis
plants. The tree and shrub vegetation includes, for example,
olives, elephant numbers, kermesek, dwarf palm, Phoenician
one (Juniʹperus phoeniʹcea) and mastic.
In the interior of Tunisia, open vegetation with low
bushes, herbs and grasses is spreading. Dehydrated salt
lakes also exist in their quarters, which have a flora of
salt-resistant plants, mainly amaranth plants such as
Arthrocneʹmum, Anaʹbasis and Halocneʹmum
Several species that now exist only in sub-Saharan Africa
have disappeared from Tunisia in historical times. African
elephant, lion and ostrich. Leopards are rarely found in
mountainous areas. There are close to 80 species of mammals,
of which desert rats are a distinct feature.
Predators include golden shawls, genets and
perennials, as well as in desert foxes (Vuʹlpes
rueppeʹllii), fennel, desert cat (Feʹlis margariʹta)
and caracal. In the mountain forests in the north there are
wild boar and berry crown deer, in semi-deserts and deserts
in the south cuvier gas and sand gazelle (Gazeʹlla
leptoʹceros). There are also North African elephant
beak mice (Elephaʹntulus rozeʹti) and camphor
It breeds about 170 species of birds, including several
species of stone washes and larch and some species of fly
hens. In the salt lakes inland, flamingos nest, and on the
coasts many European migratory birds rest or winter.
Egyptian cobra, horned snake, lizard snake, common chameleon
and several species of French finger lizards can be
mentioned. scorpions and scorpions.
In 2010, there were six national parks. The largest are
the bird-rich freshwater lake Ichkeul in the north and Jabal
Bu Hadma in central Tunisia.