Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, most of the Central African Republic is a plateau-like highland, 600–750 m asl. However, some lots are much higher, e.g. The Bongo massif in the northeast with rocks from the Cretaceous period, which rises to about 1,400 m above sea level, and the Karre Mountains to the west, 1,420 m above sea level. A threshold-like elevation through the east-west stretch of land constitutes a water divider that delimits from each other three major water systems, the Nile to the east, Congo with the tributary Oubangui which forms part of the boundary to the south, and the Chad basin to the north with the boundary to the Bahr the main river Chari.
The bedrock in the east is otherwise dominated by Precambrian rocks, such as gneiss and quartzite. In the northern part of the country, striking hill and mountain landscapes have been eroded into the sandstone layers that overlay the quartzite and gneiss. Along the border with Chad, where the tributaries of Chari radiate, there is the only major area with bedrock from as recently as the younger tertiary and quaternary.
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In the Central African Republic, a tropical savannah-type climate prevails, forming a transition between the dry steppe and desert climate in the northern neighboring countries and the tropical rainforest climate in the south. The rainfall is greatest, about 1,800 mm per year, in the southern parts of the country, which therefore has a more humid appearance than the north, where it falls about 860 mm. The majority of precipitation is concentrated to a rainy season from April to September. In the south, the rain is more evenly distributed over the year. The dry season from October to March is caused by the dry northeast passage, and the temperature reaches up to 40 °C during the day, while the nights are quite chilly. During the rainy season the temperature varies between 20 and 30 °C. Sand and dust storms can occur in the far north. The soil is due to the rich rainfall of a leached, lateritic type.
Plant-and animal life
The land is mostly covered by open savannah, which in some places seals to tree savannah. At the far south is the rain forest, which stretches a bit up in the country along the rivers. About 12% of the country is covered by forest and bushland.
The fauna includes antelopes, African buffalo, African elephant, giraffe, hippopotamus, Anubis baby, lion, leopard, jackals, nil crocodile, herons, storks and vultures. In the rainforest area there are lowland gorillas, chimpanzees and market mats. Among the insects should be mentioned tsetse flies and in the dry areas a large species of black beetles.
The nature reserves include the Manovo-Gounda-Saint-Floris National Parks, André Félix, Bamingui-Bangoran and Dzanga-Ndoki.
The territory consists of a series of plateaus, between 500 and 900 m, strongly engraved by rivers and dominated by isolated mountain groups, which reach their maximum height in the Gaou (1420 m), at the north-western end of the country. Depending on the climatic conditions, of the equatorial type throughout the southern belt and of the tropical type, however, in the northern regions, the spontaneous vegetation passes from the rainforest to the savannah (the latter interrupted by tunnel forests along the rivers) and even to the steppe in the drier areas of NE. The hydrography is divided between the two basins of the Chari, to the North, and the Oubangui, to the South, which marks for a good stretch the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo and which collects the waters of numerous tributaries, whose regime is conditioned by the trend of rainfall (constant in the S; seasonal, with summer maximums, in the N).