Terrain shapes and bedrock
The topography of the Dominican Republic is characterized, as was BC. all Hispaniola, of clear linear features with east – west direction. This is caused by structures in the bedrock, caused by faulting and folding in connection with the alpine mountain range formation in America during tertiary times. Thus, one can distinguish five major elongated highlands with intermediate sinks and low plains.
The largest elevation in the country, the Central Cordillera, forms a major axis in the northwest – southeast direction throughout the island, dividing the Dominican Republic into two major areas. There is also the highest peak in the entire Caribbean, Duarte (3 175 m above sea level). The mountain range consists mainly of sedimentary and volcanic rocks from Jurassic and Cretaceous. South of the Central Cordillera, there are also two separate ridge ridges, the Neibaba Mountains and the farthest south of the Bahoruco Mountains. They are separated by a deep fault area with, among other things, sewerless salt lakes, where the largest, Lake Enriquillo, is 44 m uh
In the long, peninsular eastern part of the Dominican Republic, the Eastern Cordillera extends within the northern coast, while an extensive lowland is to the south. The eastern Cordillera is built up of rocks from Cretaceous, the lowlands of quaternary deposits.
Along the northern coast of the island stretches the Northern Cordillera (Sierra de Monte Cristi), which consists mostly of tertiary limestones. It makes most of the Dominican Republic’s Atlantic coast steep and inaccessible. Between this ridge and the Central Cordillera in the south, the rivers North Yaque flow to the west and Yuna to the east.
The southern part of the country is drained by a number of shorter rivers that flow in a southerly direction, where the South Yaque is the largest.
The ground cover is mainly of black soil type with some leaching in the northern rainier parts. In the higher areas there are mountain earth moons. In the lower parts of the country, the soil cover consists of young, alluvial deposits.
According to COUNTRYAAH, the Dominican Republic is within the tropical zone, but the climate is strongly affected by the altitude conditions, the surrounding seas and the constantly windy northeast passage from the Atlantic. This year’s average temperature is 25 °C, except in the highest parts, which have 21 °C. Puerto Plata on the north coast has 22 °C in January and 27 °C in July. As the temperature rarely exceeds 32 °C and low temperatures are virtually unknown, the climate of the Dominican Republic becomes generally mild and pleasant.
According to BRIDGAT, the rainfall, on average 1,350 mm per year, falls mainly in the mountain areas in the north and northeast, which receive 2,540 mm per year. In the southwestern Dominican Republic, where the air has lost most of its humidity, the rainfall is only 500-750 mm per year. The country is in the danger zone for tropical storms formed in the Atlantic during August to October.
Plant-and animal life
The vegetation is highly diverse in the country, mainly due to different rainfall conditions. The mountain ranges of the northern slopes are to a large extent covered by tropical rainforest, although this is estimated hard on valuable timber, among other things. mahogany. In the southern and eastern parts of the country, tree water dominates, while dryland vegetation with grass and various cactus species prevails in central areas with rain shadow. On the higher mountains there are occasionally coniferous forests with Piʹnus occidentaʹlis and Podocaʹrpus coriaʹceus. Mangrove forest is found along the east coast.
Despite the island’s isolation, the flora is rich. It houses, among other things. 30 endemic vascular plant genus. The insect fauna is also extensive. Around the island are coral reefs that are extremely rich in both invertebrates and fish. The higher wildlife on land, on the other hand, is poor. Of the original mammals, only bats, rodents and insect eaters are present. Among the latter, it belongs to the island’s endemic Haiti snail (Soleʹnodon paradoʹxus), which is now endangered due to biotope destruction and the wild dogs that hunt it. From the relatively poor species of bird fauna can be mentioned two species of todis, of which narrow- billed todi (Toʹdus angustiroʹstris) is endemic. There are only four genus frogs, but a relatively species-rich herbivorous fauna, including many lizards and lace crocodile (Crocodyʹlus acuʹtus).
Almost 15% of the country’s land is allocated as national parks or nature reserves; inter alia in 2010 there were 17 national parks, among them Jaragua, located on the Barahona Peninsula in the south. Relatively large marine reserves have been allocated.