Terrain shapes and bedrock
The central natural region of Pakistan is the Indus
plain, which is also the most important from an
economic point of view. It is mainly made up of fertile
river deposits and is crossed in its upper part, Punjab, by
the Indus with tributaries, i.e. Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej.
The southern part of the plain forms the dry and hot Sind.
In the far south, Indus has built up a delta area that is
water-drenched and largely flooded at high tide.
To the east of the Indus lower race is a desert area
that forms the southwestern parts of the Tharöknen. In
southwestern Pakistan lies the Baluchistan plateau
country with an altitude of 500-1000 m above sea level.
It is separated from the Indus plain by, among other things.
Kirthar and Sulaiman mountains.
At the far north, Hindukush and Karakoram and the western
Himalayas form Pakistan's northern mountain region
with peaks such as Nanga Parbat (8 138 m asl) and K 2 (8 611
m asl). Below are south plateaus and valleys such as the
Peshaward Valley, with long limestone ridges, and the Potwar
Plateau, formed in sandstone and partly covered by loose
COUNTRYAAH, Pakistan has a dry, continental climate with large,
mainly altitude-dependent regional variations. The average
temperature in January changes from 20 ～ C on the coast and
14 ～ C on the Indus plain to −20 ～ C in the northern
mountains. July averages 35 ～ C in the desert areas of the
southeast (up to 47 ～ C during the day), 29 ～ C on the coast
and 0 ～ C in the mountains to the north. The southwest
monsoon blows during July - October, and the annual rainfall
becomes 150-500 mm on the coast, 400 mm on the plain and
1,500 mm on the north.
Flora has many so-called saharo-sindic features, ie
species found throughout the arid region from North Africa
to the Indian Peninsula. These include many species of
basket-flowered plants, cruciferous plants, grasses and
wreath-flowered plants. These occur mainly in the lowlands
around the river Indus, which are now largely irrigated.
In the mountainous parts of Baluchistan and Waziristan,
the climate is considerably drier than Indus, and the
vegetation is most similar to that found in Iran and
Afghanistan. Here, so-called irano-turanic species, e.g.
many pillow-shaped and thorny carnations, Acantholiʹmon
species and several thorny pea plants. In mountainous areas
between 2,500 and 3,500 meters above sea level. pine trees,
the pine Piʹnus roxbuʹrghii and the Himalayan
pine (P. wallichiaʹna), the Queʹrcus
incaʹna oak and various species of the genus Benwood,
Pruʹnus and Rhaʹmnus.
The fauna is poorer than in India, much due to drier
climates without tropical forests. There are about 140
species of mammals, among others. 25 species of predators
and 11 species of predators. Widespread species include
leopard, striped hyena and white-necked porcupine (Hyʹstrix
iʹndica). In arid areas, there are besoar antelope,
the gazelle species Gazeʹlla benneʹttiiand many species
of desert rats. In the mountainous areas of northern
Pakistan, there is the hollow, the collar bear, the hornet's
goat and, rarely, the snow leopard. Around Indus and in
lakes on the river plains there are a lot of wetland birds,
including. herons, tree ducks and wintertime wintering ducks
from northern Asia. In some areas, necklace parakeets are
common, and in the mountains to the north there are many
species of birds of prey. Glassworms are quite common in the
lowlands, and in dry areas there are sandboa worms and
sandrace worms. In the Indus there are rare gavial and
Indus dolphins (Plataniʹsta miʹnor) and
species of the carp fish genus mahseer.
In 2009, Pakistan had 14 national parks; the largest were
Kirthar (3,087 km2) and Khunjerab (2,269 km2).
In addition, there were about 50 game reserves.
Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan; 1.15 million residents (2011). In 1958,
it was decided to replace a new, modern capital, Karachi, whose climate and
location were unfavorable to the young state. Islamabad is located on the
sub-continent's old Grand Trunk Road, strategically close to the country's
military headquarters in neighboring Rawalpindi and below Margalla Hills with
both recreational opportunities and water resources for the metropolis. A Greek
architectural firm designed the city plan as a broad triangle, plotted in
sectors with central market areas, separated by wide boulevards. Construction
began in 1961 and moved in two years later. The 1962 constitution appointed
Islamabad as the seat of government, but only after Bangladesh in 1971, the
Legislative Assembly moved from Dhaka.
The main impression of Islamabad is lush, spacious and prosperous; In doing
so, the city differs markedly from much of Pakistan by the way. To the east lie
the white government buildings whose architecture unites modernity with Islam.
Here is also the diplomatic neighborhood. Farther to the north, at the top of
the triangle, the Faisal Mosque rises; it is one of the largest in the world, a
gift from Saudi Arabia and shaped like a square desert tent with four minarets
at the corners. On the outskirts of the city there are recreation areas. In June
2008, terrorists detonated a car bomb at the Danish embassy in the city, killing
six and up to 30 wounded.