Geography of Pakistan


Terrain shapes and bedrock

The central natural region of Pakistan is the Indus plain, which is also the most important from an economic point of view. It is mainly made up of fertile river deposits and is crossed in its upper part, Punjab, by the Indus with tributaries, i.e. Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej. The southern part of the plain forms the dry and hot Sind. In the far south, Indus has built up a delta area that is water-drenched and largely flooded at high tide.

To the east of the Indus lower race is a desert area that forms the southwestern parts of the Tharöknen. In southwestern Pakistan lies the Baluchistan plateau country with an altitude of 500-1000 m above sea level. It is separated from the Indus plain by, among other things. Kirthar and Sulaiman mountains.

At the far north, Hindukush and Karakoram and the western Himalayas form Pakistan’s northern mountain region with peaks such as Nanga Parbat (8 138 m asl) and K 2 (8 611 m asl). Below are south plateaus and valleys such as the Peshaward Valley, with long limestone ridges, and the Potwar Plateau, formed in sandstone and partly covered by loose soil.


According to COUNTRYAAH, Pakistan has a dry, continental climate with large, mainly altitude-dependent regional variations. The average temperature in January changes from 20 ° C on the coast and 14 ° C on the Indus plain to −20 ° C in the northern mountains. July averages 35 ° C in the desert areas of the southeast (up to 47 ° C during the day), 29 ° C on the coast and 0 ° C in the mountains to the north. The southwest monsoon blows during July – October, and the annual rainfall becomes 150-500 mm on the coast, 400 mm on the plain and 1,500 mm on the north.

Plant Life

Flora has many so-called saharo-sindic features, ie species found throughout the arid region from North Africa to the Indian Peninsula. These include many species of basket-flowered plants, cruciferous plants, grasses and wreath-flowered plants. These occur mainly in the lowlands around the river Indus, which are now largely irrigated.

In the mountainous parts of Baluchistan and Waziristan, the climate is considerably drier than Indus, and the vegetation is most similar to that found in Iran and Afghanistan. Here, so-called irano-turanic species, e.g. many pillow-shaped and thorny carnations, Acantholiʹmon species and several thorny pea plants. In mountainous areas between 2,500 and 3,500 meters above sea level. pine trees, the pine Piʹnus roxbuʹrghii and the Himalayan pine (P. wallichiaʹna), the Queʹrcus incaʹna oak and various species of the genus Benwood, Pruʹnus and Rhaʹmnus.


The fauna is poorer than in India, much due to drier climates without tropical forests. There are about 140 species of mammals, among others. 25 species of predators and 11 species of predators. Widespread species include leopard, striped hyena and white-necked porcupine (Hyʹstrix iʹndica). In arid areas, there are besoar antelope, the gazelle species Gazeʹlla benneʹttiiand many species of desert rats. In the mountainous areas of northern Pakistan, there is the hollow, the collar bear, the hornet’s goat and, rarely, the snow leopard. Around Indus and in lakes on the river plains there are a lot of wetland birds, including. herons, tree ducks and wintertime wintering ducks from northern Asia. In some areas, necklace parakeets are common, and in the mountains to the north there are many species of birds of prey. Glassworms are quite common in the lowlands, and in dry areas there are sandboa worms and sandrace worms. In the Indus there are rare gavial and Indus dolphins (Plataniʹsta miʹnor) and species of the carp fish genus mahseer.

Nature conservation

In 2009, Pakistan had 14 national parks; the largest were Kirthar (3,087 km2) and Khunjerab (2,269 km2). In addition, there were about 50 game reserves.


Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan; 1.15 million residents (2011). In 1958, it was decided to replace a new, modern capital, Karachi, whose climate and location were unfavorable to the young state. Islamabad is located on the sub-continent’s old Grand Trunk Road, strategically close to the country’s military headquarters in neighboring Rawalpindi and below Margalla Hills with both recreational opportunities and water resources for the metropolis. A Greek architectural firm designed the city plan as a broad triangle, plotted in sectors with central market areas, separated by wide boulevards. Construction began in 1961 and moved in two years later. The 1962 constitution appointed Islamabad as the seat of government, but only after Bangladesh in 1971, the Legislative Assembly moved from Dhaka.

The main impression of Islamabad is lush, spacious and prosperous; In doing so, the city differs markedly from much of Pakistan by the way. To the east lie the white government buildings whose architecture unites modernity with Islam. Here is also the diplomatic neighborhood. Farther to the north, at the top of the triangle, the Faisal Mosque rises; it is one of the largest in the world, a gift from Saudi Arabia and shaped like a square desert tent with four minarets at the corners. On the outskirts of the city there are recreation areas. In June 2008, terrorists detonated a car bomb at the Danish embassy in the city, killing six and up to 30 wounded.

Country data

Area: 796,095 km2 (world ranking: 35)

Residents: 197,016,000

Population density: 247 per km2 (as of 2017, world ranking: 6)

Capital: Islamabad (Islamabad)

Official languages: Urdu

Gross domestic product: 305.0 billion US $; Real growth: 5.7%

Gross national product (GNP, per resident and year): 1580 US$

Currency: 1 Pakistani. Rupee (pR) = 100 Paisa


Schaperstr. 29, 10719 Berlin
Telephone 030 3021244299,
Fax 030 21244210

Head of State: Mamnoon Hussain, Head of Government: Imran Ahmad Khan Niazi, Exterior: Shah Mehmood Qureshi

National holiday: 23.3. (Decision to found a state in 1940) and 14.8. (Independence Day)

Administrative division
4 provinces and capital district; also tribal areas under federal administration (FATA) with 27,220 km2

State and form of government
Constitution of 1973
Islamic Republic (in the Commonwealth)
State religion: Islam
Parliament (Majlis-e-Shura): National assembly with 342 members (60 seats for women and 10 for minors). reserved), election every 5 years; Senate with 104 Member. (Indirectly elected for 6 years, 4 of which are reserved for minorities), Part election every 3 years
election of the head of state by electoral college every 5 years (renewable once)
Voting age 18 years

Population: Pakistani, last census 2017 (preliminary): 207,774,520 residents
42% Punjabi, 17% Pashtuns, 14% Sindhi, 11% Saraiki, 8% Mohajirs, 4% Baluch, 4% other

Cities (with population): (as of 2017) Karachi (Karachi) 14,916,456 pop., Lahore 11,126,285, Faisalabad (Lyallpur) 3,204,726, Rawalpindi 2,098,231, Gujranwala 2,027,001, Peshawar 1,970,042, Multan 1,871,843, Hyderabad 1,734,309, Islamabad (Islamabad) 1,009,832, Quetta 1,001,205

Religions: 96% Muslims (mostly Sunnis), 2% Hindus, 2% Christians; Minorities of Ahmadi and others (as of 2006) Urdu

Languages: ; Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki, Baluchi, Brahui and others; English disseminates

employed people by economic sector
Agriculture 42%, industry 24%, business 34% (2017)

Unemployment (in% of all labor force): 2017: 4.0%; high underemployment

Inflation rate (in%): 2017: 4.1%

Foreign trade: import: 57.4 billion US$ (2017); Export: 21.9 billion US $ (2017)