Terrain shapes and bedrock
to COUNTRYAAH, Northern Thailand is mountainous with elongated, parallel
mountain ranges in the Himalayan extension to the south. The
highest peak, Doi Inthanon, is 2,558 meters above sea level.
Granite ridges and uneven limestone areas with caves occur.
The valleys and streams are permeated by tributaries to
Thailand's main river Chao Phraya. To the east, the Korat
Plateau is spreading, where faults have created north-south
ridges and steep rock walls. At the far south, however, are
east - west ridge ridges. It is a wavy landscape with some
high peaks along the border with Cambodia.
The large rivers Mun and Chi unite near the border with
Laos and fall into the Mekong, boundary river to the east.
The central plains are Thailand's core land with backland
and fertile lowlands. The long strip of land on the Malacca
peninsula is mostly mountainous. The Gulf of Thailand in the
south has several sandy bays with known bathing places.
Thailand has a tropical monsoon climate except on the
Malacca peninsula in the south, where there is a tropical
rainforest climate with two rainy seasons per year.
May-October, the southwest monsoon from the Indian Ocean
sweeps humid air masses over the land. November - February
dominates the winter monsoon, which brings in drier and
colder air from the north. March - April is the hottest time
in Thailand. The annual average temperature is 24-30 ～ C,
29-31 ～ C in April - May and 20-25 ～ C in December -
January. The topography means that the west sides can get
over 3,000 mm of precipitation per year, while in the east
there is about 1,000 mm. Snow can fall in the high
Three flora areas meet in Thailand, which has given the
country a rich flora with 10,000 to 15,000 species. However,
the number of endemic species is relatively low. The central
plain of the Chao Phraya River has been used for rice
cultivation, which has led to the disappearance of the
original swamp forest vegetation. The natural forests are
30% evergreen and 55% deciduous. Both types are rich in
dipterocarpus plants. The Korat Plateau is now almost
forestless, but in some places dry monsoon forests remain,
which at a higher altitude turn into evergreen rainforest.
The high-lying northern parts have evergreen forests of
oaks, stock plants and magnolia oils, and conifers such as
Podocaʹrpus and Dacryʹdium. On higher
ridges are the pines Piʹnus merkuʹsii andPinus
Along the border with Burma south of Kranäset there are
rainforests, which were previously rich in teak. The
vegetation on the mountain slopes is dominated by secondary
bamboo and grass vegetation. The peninsula south of Kranäset
is very rainy, and the largest area is occupied by
cultivated land. Once upon a time, the area was covered by
vast evergreen rainforests; nowadays they are mainly in the
mountains. Swamp forests occur most commonly in sinks in the
interior; in these grow e.g. rambutan and various palm
species. A rich mangrove occurs on the peninsula's coast.
Wildlife is rich with 270 species of mammals (including
110 species of bats), 300 species of reptiles, 110 species
of amphibians, approximately 600 species of freshwater fish
and more than 900 species of observed birds, of which
approximately 615 are nesting. However, wildlife has been
hit very hard by logging and other biotope destruction as
well as by hard hunting. Formerly more or less widespread
species such as tiger, leopard, Indian elephant, scab rag
paper, sumatranos horn and (wild) water buffalo now have
very small populations. The endemic Schomburg's deer (Ceʹrvus
schombuʹrgki) has been extinct since the 1930s.
Smaller areas with still rich fauna are found especially
in the rainforest area in the south, in the mountains in the
southeast (towards Cambodia), in the Tenasser Mountains in
the west (towards Burma) and in the mountains of the Korat
Plateau. Here you will find Malay bear and collar bear, ox
banteng and gaur, and many more primates such as macaques,
langur, gibbon (including larks) and laurels.
Bird groups that are well represented include pheasants,
cuckoos, pigeons, kingfishers, beards and flycatchers. There
have been three species of crocodiles: delta crocodile (in
coastal waters), Siamese crocodile (Crocodyʹlus
siameʹnsis; now practically extinct but cultivated in
monkeys) and false gavial (in the Perak River).
About 16% of the country's area enjoys nature protection;
There are 113 national parks in this area. Thailand was the
first country to ban logging of anything other than planted