Terrain shapes and bedrock
COUNTRYAAH, Togo is a long narrow strip of land that extends from the
Gulf of Guinea about 500 km north. A narrow coastal plain is
equipped with wide sandy bays as well as series of lagoons
and beach lakes, of which Lake Togo is the largest. About 35
km inland, the Ouatchi plateau spreads at an altitude of
70–100 m above sea level. and with a ground cover of leached
laterite soil. In the direction of the northeast stretches a
higher plateau country, 400–500 m above sea level, drained
by the river Mono with tributaries.
A long and low ridge, the Togo Mountains, extends across
the country in the south-west-north-northeast. It reaches
986 m above sea level in Pic Baumann (Mont Agou), Togo's
highest point. North of the ridge is a sandstone plateau
drained by the river Oti, which flows into Lake Volta in
Ghana. At the far north-west is a higher region with a
granite and gneiss bedrock.
Togo has a tropical climate. Humidity is highest in the
south. There are two rainy seasons: April-July and
September-October; The rainfall is 1000–1 750 mm per year.
Further north, the rainy season falls in June – September
and yields about 1,000 mm; the rest of the year, the dry
wind dominates the harmattan. The average annual temperature
in Togo is 27 °C, except in the far north, where it is 32 °C during the dry season.
Flora's composition is in line with that of other West
African countries. Previously, Togo was dominated by dense,
mainly deciduous forests, but nowadays the largest forests
occur along the border with Ghana. These lowland rain
forests, which represents only about 2.5% of the country,
dominated by trees Antia'ris africa'na,
Afze'lia africa'na (family of legumes), African
mahogany (Kha'ya grandifoli'ola), Co'la
grandiflo'ra and Triplo'chiton sclero'xylon
(family Malvaceae), Diospy'ros mespilifo'rmis and
Most of the country is now cultivated landscape and
pasture land. In more open landscapes there are trees such
as Ceʹltis and Holopteʹlea (the family of
almond plants) and Viʹtex.
Wildlife is dominated by savannah species. There are, for
example, African buffalo, 17 species of antelope (including
declining populations of forest living species such as bongo
and diver antelope), African elephant (a small tribe in the
north), lion (now few), leopard, warthog, hippopotamus and
ten species of primates, i.a. anubis baby and western black
and white guereza (Coʹlobus polyʹkomos). In total,
there are nearly 200 species of mammals.
Of the 560 species of bird observed, almost 400 breed,
including northern cranes, marabou and saddlebark, and
several species of guinea fowl, stairs and francolines.
In 1996, Togo had three national parks: the
Fazao-Malfakassa mountain and tree water area in central
Togo, and the grassland Kéran and the small Fosse aux Lions
forest area in the north. African elephant.