Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Togo is a long narrow strip of land that extends from the Gulf of Guinea about 500 km north. A narrow coastal plain is equipped with wide sandy bays as well as series of lagoons and beach lakes, of which Lake Togo is the largest. About 35 km inland, the Ouatchi plateau spreads at an altitude of 70–100 m above sea level. and with a ground cover of leached laterite soil. In the direction of the northeast stretches a higher plateau country, 400–500 m above sea level, drained by the river Mono with tributaries.
A long and low ridge, the Togo Mountains, extends across the country in the south-west-north-northeast. It reaches 986 m above sea level in Pic Baumann (Mont Agou), Togo’s highest point. North of the ridge is a sandstone plateau drained by the river Oti, which flows into Lake Volta in Ghana. At the far north-west is a higher region with a granite and gneiss bedrock.
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Togo has a tropical climate. Humidity is highest in the south. There are two rainy seasons: April-July and September-October; The rainfall is 1000–1 750 mm per year. Further north, the rainy season falls in June – September and yields about 1,000 mm; the rest of the year, the dry wind dominates the harmattan. The average annual temperature in Togo is 27 °C, except in the far north, where it is 32 °C during the dry season.
Flora’s composition is in line with that of other West African countries. Previously, Togo was dominated by dense, mainly deciduous forests, but nowadays the largest forests occur along the border with Ghana. These lowland rain forests, which represents only about 2.5% of the country, dominated by trees Antia’ris africa’na, Afze’lia africa’na (family of legumes), African mahogany (Kha’ya grandifoli’ola), Co’la grandiflo’ra and Triplo’chiton sclero’xylon (family Malvaceae), Diospy’ros mespilifo’rmis and kapok.
Most of the country is now cultivated landscape and pasture land. In more open landscapes there are trees such as Ceʹltis and Holopteʹlea (the family of almond plants) and Viʹtex.
Wildlife is dominated by savannah species. There are, for example, African buffalo, 17 species of antelope (including declining populations of forest living species such as bongo and diver antelope), African elephant (a small tribe in the north), lion (now few), leopard, warthog, hippopotamus and ten species of primates, i.e. anubis baby and western black and white guereza (Coʹlobus polyʹkomos). In total, there are nearly 200 species of mammals.
Of the 560 species of bird observed, almost 400 breed, including northern cranes, marabou and saddlebark, and several species of guinea fowl, stairs and francolines.
In 1996, Togo had three national parks: the Fazao-Malfakassa mountain and tree water area in central Togo, and the grassland Kéran and the small Fosse aux Lions forest area in the north. African elephant.