According to COUNTRYAAH, Armenian nature is largely characterized by highlands and mountain ranges in the Lesser Caucasus. The highest peak is Aragats, 4,090 m above sea level, in the northwest of the country. The mountain ranges have been formed as alpine fold mountains for the past 65 million years. An earthquake in December 1988 destroyed most of the cities of Spitak and Gjumri and testifies that the movements of the earth’s crust have not yet ceased. Between the mountain ranges are plateaus, partly of volcanic origin, as well as deep river valleys. The hill country slopes slowly to the north as well as to the south. In central Armenia lies the 1 230 km2 large Sevan lake surrounded by high mountain ranges. Along the border with Turkey and Iran, the river Aras flows, surrounded by the fertile and densely populated Ararat plain.
The mountain ranges in the Lesser Caucasus prevent moist air from the Mediterranean from reaching over the middle parts of Armenia. Only the slopes of between 1,400 and 2,000 m above sea level. receives more than 800 mm of annual rainfall. It is in these areas that one finds the country’s largest forests. In the northeast, beech forests and in the south-east oak forests with animals such as brown bear, lion, European wildcat and squirrel. Most of Armenia has steep climates with an annual rainfall of between 200 and 400 mm and average temperatures in January around −5 ° C and in July around 25 ° C. Above the steppes and forests there are alpine meadows with lush pastures and wildlife. mufflon sheep and lamb lamb.
In 2010, the country had two national parks: Sevan (1,500 km2) and Dilijan (240 km2). There were also five smaller state reserves that were protected for research and run by state funds.
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The population, which in 1920 was 780,000 units, during the Soviet seventy years recorded a significant growth, more than quadrupling its numbers (3.3 million at the 1989 census), thanks also to a consistent immigration of Armenians from other Republics of the USSR. However, uncertainties weigh on the 1989 figure, mainly attributable to the conflict over Nagornyj Karabah, which since 1988 has generated cross flows of refugees between Armenia and Azerbaijan: in the two-year period 1988-89 no less than 350,000 Armenians left Azerbaijan and ‘Azerbaijani exclave of Nahičevan´ to reach Armenia and other countries of the USSR, while about 220,000 Azeris residing in Armenia followed the reverse path. Other intense flows characterized the 1990s and early 2000s and involved around 800,000 people, mainly headed to Russia and other former Soviet countries in search of better economic conditions. The size of the population in 2005 was 3,200,000 units according to official statistics, about 3 million according to independent estimates. Over a third of the residents are concentrated in the capital, Yerevan, the only metropolis and the greatest political, cultural and economic center. They exceed 100,000 residents also the cities of Vanadzor and Gyumri.
From an ethnic point of view, the population is almost all Armenian (94%) and Christian. Armenian, which has its own alphabet, belongs to the Indo-European linguistic group. Among the minority ethnic groups, the most consistent are the Russian (2%) and Kurdish (1.5%).
Yerevan, capital of Armenia; 1. 1 million residents (2019). Yerevan is located on the river Razdan just over 20 km from the border with Turkey. The city is primarily a management and commercial center, but the business sector is multi-faceted, with chemical production, aluminum smelters and the engineering and consumer goods industry. In Yerevan there is a university (founded in 1920) and a number of research institutions.
Yerevan, first mentioned in the 600s, was an increasingly important trading spot on the road between the Ararat Valley and the North Caucasus from the 1400s. The city was often elevated by Persians and Turks. After the inclusion in Russia in 1828 and the advent of a transcaucasian Caucasus, the economic importance of Yerevan increased. Yerevan was the capital of the Republic of Armenia in 1918–21, then the center of the Armenian Soviet Republic and in 1991 regained its position as the free capital of Armenia.