Barbados, unlike many other islands of the Windward Islands, consists of sedimentary rocks such as clay, sandstone and conglomerate from the Upper Cretaceous, superimposed by calcareous sediments and coral formations with a thickness of up to 100 m. The soil is fertile and well suited for cultivation. From the highest peak, Hillaby (340 m above sea level), the land surface is lowered to the west in wave-shaped steps, while the eastern part is a hilly highland with a steep coast. Otherwise, the coast includes several sand bays and is mostly surrounded by coral reefs.
According to COUNTRYAAH, the climate is mild and pleasant; the temperature stays between 22 and 30 °C, making the island a popular tourist destination. The rainfall is about 1,500 mm per year and falls during the rainy season in June to December. According to BRIDGAT, the rest of the year is dry time. The proximity to the Caribbean cyclone belt causes storms to sometimes cause great damage.
Very little of the original plant world remains and half of the island’s area is occupied by sugar cane plantations. Some tropical, planted trees and flowering shrubs provide color splendor to the landscape. Of mammals, only bats are native. Wild rabbit, green market and mungo have been introduced to the island.
Barbados in 2009 had 13 areas under conservation, of which one was a national park.