Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Bosnia and Herzegovina is a mountainous country. The Dinaric Alps stretch in the north-west-southeast direction and make their mark especially on the westernmost parts of the country. The highest point is Maglić in the southeast with 2,386 m asl. Between the mountain ranges lie vast plateaus, severely affected by soil erosion in the treeless landscape. To the northeast, east of the Bosna River, lies a more wooded area.
The bedrock consists largely of limestone, in which the underground drainage formed a karst landscape with caves, dolphins and gullies. Especially in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, the dolphins have been extended to open and fertile river valleys.
The largest rivers in Bosnia and Herzegovina are Sava and its tributaries Una, Vrbas and Bosna in the north. In the south, Neretva is the largest river.
Despite its proximity to the Mediterranean, only the area west of the Dinaric Alps has a Mediterranean climate; the average temperature in e.g. Mostar is 6 °C in January and 26 °C in July. The rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a continental climate with severe winters and most of the rainfall during spring and early summer. According to BRIDGAT, Sarajevo has an average temperature in January of −1 °C and in July of 19 °C.
The annual rainfall decreases from west to east. In the Dinar Alps more than 1,500 mm falls, in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina 750-1000 mm.
Plant-and animal life
In areas that are not cultivated, at lower levels, high-growth forest dominates, among other things. beech, oaks, Serbian fir (Piʹcea omoriʹca) and silver fir. In the deciduous forests there are heat-demanding species such as dwarf maple, mana box and European hop book (Oʹstrya carpinifoʹlia). The higher mountain areas have a rich alpine vegetation with, among other things. many spring flowering onion plants.
Especially in the mountain areas there are small tribes of wolf, brown bear, European wildcat and red deer. Wild boar and red fox have a large distribution. There are many species of birds of prey. goose bears, king eagle and dwarf eagle; snake eagle, emperor eagle and eagle wail. White stork is common in the cultivation areas, while black stork nests in some forest areas. In the wetlands there are several species of herons. Among turtles are Greek turtle and marsh turtle and among molluscs the cave species olm.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (2012) has three national parks: Kozara (34 km2), Sutjeska (172 km2) and Una (198 km2). Less than 1% of the country’s area is nature protected.