Terrain shapes and bedrock
A 20-60 km wide plain within the Atlantic coastline is the smallest of the topographic regions of Guyana. Up to 5–6 km of land is flooded by the tides under the river, and the entire coastline must be protected from the sea waves by numerous ridges and canals.
To the south, a highland region with fun topography, which rises from 15 to 120 m above sea level, takes over. on the west side. The area, which is 130-160 km wide, is covered by white sand, which is underpinned by Precambrian rocks. Outside the crystalline area, west and south spreads another highland area with the Kaieteur Plateau, which is built up of sandstone and slate. It reaches the Acarai Mountains at the southern border 610 m above sea level. and culminates in the Pakaraima Mountains with the Roraima massif (2,772 m above sea level).
The vast Rupununi lake is divided into two regions through the east-west Kanuku chain, which reaches 1,000 m above sea level.
Several large rivers flow into the Atlantic, including Essequibo, Mazaruni and Cuyuni with a common mouth. Many waterfalls are formed in the western highlands, i.e. the 226 m high Kaiete fall.
According to COUNTRYAAH, most of Guyana has a tropical rainforest climate, which in the south turns into a tropical savannah climate. Through the passages, humid air is introduced from the Atlantic over the coastal areas. According to BRIDGAT, the temperature here is about 27 °C with very little variation. Precipitation falls abundantly, mainly on the coast during two periods, April – August and December – January respectively; it amounts to 2,300 mm per year.
Savannah areas in the interior have only one rainy season and receive 1,800 mm per year, though with great variation.
Along the coast there is a belt of mangroves, dominated by species of the genus Rhizophora and Avicennia. Grasslands and sugar cane plantations occur near the coast, while the interior of the country is occupied by lush tropical rainforest and mountain rainforest, which are still largely unaffected.
The lowland rainforest is similar to that of the Amazon; it is very rich in tree species. palms and species in the families catalpa plants, coconut plum plants and parana nuts (to the latter, among others, cannonball trees, Couroupiʹta guianeʹnsis). In the shrub and herb layers, predominantly neotropical families, such as pitcher plants and stripe plants, are noticed; The epiphytic flora is rich with many species of ferns, orchids and pineapple plants.
Because the rainforests are relatively unaffected, wildlife is rich, albeit not as rich as in the original parts of the Amazon. There are eight species of primates, including red crab monkey (Alouaʹtta seniʹculus), black cobweb monkey (Aʹteles paniʹscus), two species of capuchin monkeys, and skull monkey, seven species of cat animals, among others. jaguar, cougar, ozelot and jaguarundi, two species of dog, bush dog and mahkong (Cerdoʹcyon thous [tu: s]) as well as four species of half-bears, i.a. common rhino (Naʹsua naʹsua). Some of South America’s last populations of giant deer are found in Guyana. Furthermore, there are both species of umbilical, three species of deer, capybara, giant ant cap, dwarf ant cap, two species of bedbugs and four species of belts. Guayana dolphins are found in the Essequibo River and in the coastal waters beyond.
Birds include hummingbirds, macaws, and other parrots, toucans, marsh birds, oilbirds, amazon shorebirds (Rupiʹcola rupiʹcola) and rose spoon deer (Ajaia [aja i ʹa] ajaʹja). There are upwards of 150 species of amphibians, i.e. deciduous frogs and poison frogs, and between 150 and 200 species of crawfish, including four species of crocodiles, anaconda, land snakes and iguanas.
In 2010, there was only one major nature protected area in Guyana: the Kaieteur National Park (630 km2), which was set aside as early as 1929 and expanded in 1999.