Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Kuwait’s land area is low and flat with a slight general rise from the coast along the Persian Gulf towards the border to the west. The easternmost part of Saudi Arabia’s plateau country with the Musanna Mountains extends here into Kuwait with the highest point of ash-Shaqaya (290 m asl), close to the border with Saudi Arabia and Iraq.
The majority of Kuwait is a 75-90 km wide desert of lowland nature, mainly in the north-northwest-south-southeast. The landscape is faintly wavy with smaller streams, playas, which after the rainy season are often water-filled and used as watering places for camel herds. The slopes from the higher area in the west to the plain are marred by eroded dry valleys, wadier. They also occur in many parts of the country, especially in the lowland area in the north.
The coast is predominantly flat with a straight coastline. The Gulf of Kuwait forms the only major cut in the coastline, about 50 km long. The bay’s northern coastline rises 145 m above sea level in Zawr, while the capital of Kuwait City lies on the southern coast in lieu of a cape and has a natural harbor. In the extension of the inner part of the Gulf of Kuwait, the Jahra oasis is spreading. In the coastal area there are large stretches of salt marshland.
The bedrock consists of young sedimentary rocks containing very large oil reserves. Among the many islands are particularly noticeable Bubiyan in the north, which is the largest, and Faylaka outside the inlet to the Gulf of Kuwait.
In Kuwait, desert climate dominates with very hot summers and cool winters. During April to September the temperature during the daytime reaches 44 ° C, temporarily up to 54 ° C. The winter temperature is around 16 ° C. Precipitation falls during the winter period, November – March, and yields 25-180 mm per year, as a result of cyclones entering the west from an area that is otherwise dominated by the northeast passage. Strong winds are common, during June – July they appear as violent sandstorms.
Plant-and animal life
Coherent vegetation is found only in irrigated agricultural areas, mainly around Kuwait City. The country is otherwise desert-rich, and the vegetation consists mostly of low-lying shrubs. In spring, the years when sufficient rainfall falls, grasses and annual herbs sprout. Salt marshes, especially along the coast, contain salt-tolerant vegetation. Along the coast there is a local mangrove.
Wildlife on land is very poor, due to both desert conditions and hard hunting; The hunt has hit, among other things. dorkas gazelle, half-ash and cheetah, which were previously in the area. In stark contrast stands the very rich wildlife associated with the sea. Here you will find rich coral reefs and islands with large colonies of terns. lesser tern (Steʹrna bengaleʹnsis), gray-backed tern (S. anaetheʹtus) and white-tailed tern (S. repreʹssa). The coasts are important resting places for birds on migration between Africa and northern Eurasia.
Kuwait had a national park in 2010, the sand desert Jal az-Zor within the Gulf of Kuwait, and 14 nature reserves.