Terrain shapes and bedrock
Along the Mediterranean, a coastal plain of dunes, salt marshland and oases is spreading. At the border with Tunisia in the northwest is the Jifaras Plain, which rises south to the foot of Jabal Nafusa, a mountain mass of limestone of 600–900 m above sea level. The area west of the bay of Stora Syrten is part of the region of Tripolitania and is made up of highlands. The equivalent on the eastern side of the bay is Cyrenaika, where the coastal plain is bounded inward by al-Jabal al-Akhdar’s limestone plateau, 875 m above sea level.
According to COUNTRYAAH, most of Libya is occupied by the Sahara Plateau with the Libyan Desert to the east and the Fezzan region to the west. Over the wavy plateau surface rise higher sections, such as al-Hammada al-Hamra in the west, about 800 m above sea level. In central Libya lies the cool basalt al-Haruj al-Aswad massif (1,200 m above sea level) and in the far south part of the Tibestan massif with the top Bette (2,267 m ash).
No permanent watercourses exist in Libya, but well dry valleys, wadier. Oases and springs get their water from groundwater reservoirs.
In northwestern Libya there is a gray-brown soil with a high salt content; in the northeast, the earth is light and fertile, rich in potassium and phosphorus.
The whole of Libya has a dry and hot climate of the desert climate, with the exception of the northernmost parts, which through the influence of the Mediterranean have a steep climate. In the northeast, the summer average temperature is 22–27 °C, while Tripoli has 17–30 °C and the area in the south is 38 °C. The winter temperature in the corresponding areas is 10–17 °C and 8–16 °C respectively. On the Jifaras plain, the highest temperature of the earth has been measured in shade, 58 °C.
The annual rainfall on the coast is 250-375 mm, further south it is less than 50 mm. A desert wind, ghibli (scirocco), makes the air extremely dry and dusty.
The coastal areas have a flora of species that are widely distributed in the eastern Mediterranean. Here you will find shrubs such as myrtle, mastic and the sumac plant Seaʹrsia tripartiʹta, stenek, kermesek and Phloʹmis floccoʹsa and Phoenician one (Juniʹperus phoeniʹcea). In the most coastal areas there are salt marshes with several different amaranth plants, such as Aʹtriplex haʹlimus and species of the genus Arthrocneʹmum. The Cyrenaica Peninsula in the Northeast houses several endemic plants, such as strawberries Aʹrbutus uneʹdo and Cyʹclamen rohlfsiaʹnum.
The inner parts are considerably drier and warmer than the coastal area, and they are also quite poor in species with a flora of typical Saharindian species composition. The more conspicuous species include, for example, the herb Artemiʹsia heʹrba-aʹlba, the grass Lygeʹum spaʹrtum and the pea bush Retaʹma raeʹtam.
In the fairly undisturbed forests in the north there are wild boar (subspecies of wild boar), common wild boar, red fox and possibly still genet. In semi-deserts and deserts there are striped hyena (rare), golden shawl, fennel, sand cat and caracal (rare). Dorcas gas is very rare, possibly extinct. Desert hedgehog (Paraechiʹnus aethioʹpicus), large-eared hedgehog, kaphare and many desert rodents, including three species of rats, are quite common.
There are also many species of stonefish, larch, avian and in the oases palm pigeon, sahara crest (Turdoiʹdes fuʹlvus) and rare in southeastern soot falcon. Among the crabs are Egyptian cobra, sandboa and hornworm. In the interior of the country, some grasshoppers are common for some years. There are many species of scorpions, including the highly toxic North African thick- tailed scorpion (Androʹctonus austraʹlis).
There were six national parks in 2010. In addition, there were four major nature reserves.
Tripoli (Libya), Tarabulus al-Gharb, capital of Libya; 2.1 million in the metropolitan area (2012). Tripoli is located in the northwestern part of the Mediterranean coast. The city is the commercial center of the country, while ministries and central administration are divided into several cities. At the harbor lies the town’s old, well-preserved medina. After 1951, it was abandoned by many who took over the more comfortable houses left by the Italians, but the Medina survived, as did the traditional souks.temporary and politically ordered closure in the 1980’s. In the eastern part of the medina lies the old Byzantine citadel and in front of it the Green Square, the real center of the city. There are also neighborhoods from the Italian colonial period. In the newer neighborhoods, you will find Al-Fatah University and other educational institutions as well as the modern commercial sector. Tripoli has fishing industry, dyeing and cigarette and carpet production. The city has an international airport and is a transport hub for the most densely populated parts of the country.
The city, which in ancient times was called Oea, was founded by the Phoenicians in 600 AD. Under Roman rule, it came together with the sister cities of Sabratha and Leptis Magna to be named Tripolis (gr. ‘Three cities’) from which it has its modern name. After the Tripoli War 1911-12 and the Italian occupation, the city, which in 1934 became the capital of the Italian colony, grew from 1951 in independent Libya.
During the Libyan Civil War 2011, the final battle was between the rebels and the Gaddafi faithful forces in Tripoli. 21.8. the rebels moved into the city and after a few days they conquered Gaddafi’s palace and headquarters. In connection with the fighting, there was destruction of buildings, among other things. of Gaddafi’s palace. The city’s central square, the Green Square, of the rebels renamed the Martyrs Square, played a key role in the events; it was here that Gaddafi arranged his rejoicing meetings, and paid tribute as an example of the agreed Libya under his leadership.
In the fall of 2014, Islamist groups gained control of Tripoli.