Terrain shapes and bedrock
In the central part of Northern Macedonia, a lowland, which flows through the river Vardar with its tributaries, spreads, among other things. Crna and Bregalnica. Here plateaus dominate from 600 to 900 m above sea level, with elements of rock masses, among others. the 2,540 m high Jakupica.
According to COUNTRYAAH, the western part of the country is occupied by a mountain country, where the Šarbergen in southern Serbia extends into northern Macedonia, and to the south is the Jablanica mountain with a peak of 2,257 m above sea level.
In the southwestern North Macedonia are the Ohrid and Prespas lakes. In the south, northern Macedonia is delimited from Greece through the Kožuf and Nidž mountains. Even in the east adjacent to the border with Bulgaria, the country is dominated by mountainous regions with peaks over 2,000 m asl. Earthquakes occur; In 1963 most of the capital Skopje was destroyed.
According to BRIDGAT, Northern Macedonia has a continental climate with precipitation relatively evenly distributed throughout the year, in the winter in the form of snow. The summers are warm and the winters are cold with snow cover at higher altitudes for long periods. In Skopje, the average temperature is 1 °C in January and 23 °C in July; the annual rainfall is about 500 mm.
Plant-and animal life
The natural vegetation consists of lower slopes of deciduous forests with Oriental avenue (Carpiʹnus orientaʹlis), maple and oak species, including Hungarian, Turkish and Macedonian oak (Queʹrcus trojaʹna) as well as the Manas, European hop (Oʹstrya carpinifoʹlia) and terebinth here, terebinth. At higher altitudes, beech and coniferous forests dominate. The latter mainly consist of various pine species, including Macedonian pine, but also silver spruce. Above the tree line there are usually hard-grazed subalpine grasslands and marshes.
Of the larger mammals, there are wild boar, deer, gems, golden shawls, red fox and wolf as well as in the north-west of the lo and brown bear. The bird fauna is rich. There are 27 species of birds of prey and all of the woodpecker species in Europe. In lakes and marsh areas in the Vardar valley as well as in the Ohridsjön you will find, among other things, moss-headed and common pelicans, dwarf cormorants, several species of egrets and copper ducks. In the deep and geologically ancient Ohrid lake, which is set aside as a World Heritage site, there is also an interesting fish and small crawfish fauna with many endemic species.
Northern Macedonia has three national parks, Mavrovo, Galičica and Pelister, all in mountainous areas. In addition, there are a large number of so-called national monuments and nature reserves. About 7 percent of the area is protected by nature (2012).