Terrain shapes and bedrock
The al-Hajar mountain range in the north, which in the massif Jabal al-Akhdar reaches 3,018 m above sea level, is separated from the Oman Bay by a narrow alluvial plain. To the south, a large stone desert spreads with several oases at the foot of al-Hajar. Below the mountainous Dhofar in the south, a relatively fertile coastal plain is spreading. The stone desert turns west in the huge sand desert Rub al-Khali with up to 150 m high sand dunes with northeast-southwest extension.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Oman has a steep and desert climate with an annual rainfall of between 50 and 100 mm. On the coast, however, there are often fogs, which increase the humidity and relieve the heat, which can reach above 50 ° C in the summer in the interior of the country. According to BRIDGAT, nutmeg has an average temperature in January of 21 ° C and in July of 32 ° C.
Plant-and animal life
In the mountains al-Hajar in the north there are trees such as the mesquite plant Prosoʹpis cineraʹria and toothbrush trees (Salvadoʹra peʹrsica) as well as oleander plants and euphorbios. At dunes in the sand desert, tamarisk and the calliʹgonum criniʹtum slime plant are noticeable features. The Dhofar mountains in the southwest are rich with commiʹphora, Moriʹnga and Jaʹtropha species, among others. On the coast there are salt-resistant plants such as euphorbios and amaranth plants. In some places, mangroves grow. In total, there are about 1,100 species of hiding-seeded plants.
There are about 60 species of mammals, 107 breeding bird species and 74 species of reptiles. Arabian oryx has, after re-planting in 1982, increased to a few hundred animals. Desert rats and kaphare are quite common. Some typical birds are fly chickens, desert rapids and soot falcons. Three species of sunbirds are found in Oman, and in the far south-west are African paradise flycatchers (Terpsiphoʹne viʹridis). Among the reptiles are the hornworm and dabbagamer. Off the coast to the south are belts with kelp, which favors a rich wildlife with many fish and sea turtles.
All mammals and birds are protected by law. There are three major nature reserves: the Daymaniyya Islands northwest of Muscat, including soot falcons and terns, the Arabian oryx reserve on the Harasiss plain and the turtle reserve at Cape al-Hadd.