Terrain shapes and bedrock
The al-Hajar mountain range in the north, which in the massif Jabal al-Akhdar reaches 3,018 m above sea level, is separated from the Oman Bay by a narrow alluvial plain. To the south, a large stone desert spreads with several oases at the foot of al-Hajar. Below the mountainous Dhofar in the south, a relatively fertile coastal plain is spreading. The stone desert turns west in the huge sand desert Rub al-Khali with up to 150 m high sand dunes with northeast-southwest extension.
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According to COUNTRYAAH, Oman has a steep and desert climate with an annual rainfall of between 50 and 100 mm. On the coast, however, there are often fogs, which increase the humidity and relieve the heat, which can reach above 50 ° C in the summer in the interior of the country. Nutmeg has an average temperature in January of 21 ° C and in July of 32 ° C.
Plant-and animal life
In the mountains al-Hajar in the north there are trees such as the mesquite plant Prosoʹpis cineraʹria and toothbrush trees (Salvadoʹra peʹrsica) as well as oleander plants and euphorbios. At dunes in the sand desert, tamarisk and the calliʹgonum criniʹtum slime plant are noticeable features. The Dhofar mountains in the southwest are rich with commiʹphora, Moriʹnga and Jaʹtropha species, among others. On the coast there are salt-resistant plants such as euphorbios and amaranth plants. In some places, mangroves grow. In total, there are about 1,100 species of hiding-seeded plants.
There are about 60 species of mammals, 107 breeding bird species and 74 species of reptiles. Arabian oryx has, after re-planting in 1982, increased to a few hundred animals. Desert rats and kaphare are quite common. Some typical birds are fly chickens, desert rapids and soot falcons. Three species of sunbirds are found in Oman, and in the far south-west are African paradise flycatchers (Terpsiphoʹne viʹridis). Among the reptiles are the hornworm and dabbagamer. Off the coast to the south are belts with kelp, which favors a rich wildlife with many fish and sea turtles.
All mammals and birds are protected by law. There are three major nature reserves: the Daymaniyya Islands northwest of Muscat, including soot falcons and terns, the Arabian oryx reserve on the Harasiss plain and the turtle reserve at Cape al-Hadd.
The geomorphological element characterizing the north-eastern portion of the country is the Jebel al-Akhdar which with its steep slopes looms over a short coastal plain (al-Batinah), fertile and irrigated, where inhabited centers follow one another at the mouth of the uidians and the oases. Alongside a mostly tabular morphology, there is no shortage of steep or harsh forms, as in the median section that rises in Jebel Sham (3017 m), the highest peak in the country. AO the mountain it gradually declines towards the internal plateau, at the foot of which, along the desert, a long series of oases aligns. Beyond, the sandy stretches of the ar-Rub al-Khali stretch. Isolated from the rest of the country, the Zufar region rises at the south-western end, culminating at 1463 m, marking the last stretch of the coastal relief of southern Arabia.
The climate is tropical and arid, but the NE (in winter) and SW (in summer) monsoons, the altimetry and the arrangement of the reliefs are also decisive. Temperatures generally remain high (or are even torrid); rainfall is generally scarce (100-160 mm). There are no perennial rivers altogether: only the uidians, which drain the best-watered mountain slopes, convey water during rainy periods.
The human team is made up mainly of Arabs, alongside whom coexist, especially in the coastal centers, minorities of Indians, Pakistanis, Egyptians and Africans. Of the population, which at the 1993 census (the first in the history of the Sultanate) was 2,018,074 residents and had become 2,340,815 at the 2003 census, about 600,000 foreign workers are part of it. The natural movement records a positive balance above the annual average of 3.2. Over 80% of the population lives in urban areas; the areas of greatest human density are the coastal ones of Mascat and Zufar, together with some inland oases (Nazwa, al-Buraymi). With Mascat, the capital, centers of greater demographic consistency are Salalah, Matrah and Suhar. The Muslim religion is professed.