Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, the islands of Samoa are of volcanic origin and are built up of lava and rough but consist of the lower, coastal parts of coral reefs. The islands are surrounded by coral reefs and lagoons. The two major main islands are high and mountainous. The highest point, Mauga Silisili, lies on the Savai’i, reaching 1,858 m above sea level. The volcanic activity that has given rise to the islands has moved westward in relation to the seabed, which is why the islands in the east are the oldest. Savai’i has had volcanic eruptions in historical times, in 690 and 1905-11. Lava plateaus and coastal plains made up of lava are the remains of these eruptions. Upolu, the second major island, has a central, volcanic ridge, about 1,100 m above sea level. Crater lakes occur and receive their water from the abundant rainfall, which also gives rise to fast-flowing streams with numerous waterfalls.
The volcanic soil is fertile but porous, leaches easily and then quickly loses its nutrient content.
The islands are located in the tropical climate belt and are exposed to the southeast pass most of the year, which is why the rainfall is very abundant. However, it is unevenly distributed: about 3,000 mm per year falls on the north and west sides, while the mountains on the praise side get up to 7,000 mm per year. The annual average temperature is 26 °C with very little variation during the year. Typhoons are common, mainly during December to March.
Plant-and animal life
The original flora is of an oceanic type. On the volcanic soils of the interior of the islands, dense rainforests grow, often with many species of the genus Fiʹcus, whose fruits constitute important food for fruit pigeons. At the beaches, coconut trees, palm trees and sometimes bread fruit trees dominate.
The domestic mammalian fauna comprises only three species of bats, including two species of flying dogs. More than 40 species of birds breed (including six species of pigeons), and eight of these are endemic. tooth pigeon (Diduʹnculus strigiroʹstris) and a kingfisher species. There are eight species of reptiles but no amphibians. The marine fauna is rich with coral reefs in several places; here are the biologically interesting species of palolomask.
In 2011, there were two national parks, O Le Pupu Pu’e and Lanoto’o, and five rainforest reserves. Four of the reserves have largely been created thanks to funds collected in Sweden.
Samoa’s two main islands; Savaii and Upolu, are the peaks of a chain of volcanoes, which rises to 1858 meters above sea level. at Savaii (Mauga Silisili). The islands are largely made up of lava with coral reefs along the coast. Savaii is geologically the youngest of the islands, and had several volcanic eruptions in the early 1900s. The main island of Upolu has a central volcanic mountain range that reaches 1113 meters above sea level. (Mount Fito). The main islands have several crater lakes which are filled by the abundant rainfall and contribute to many watercourses and waterfalls. The other islands are smaller and lower, and Rose Island is an atoll.
The country has tropical rainy climate; the annual rainfall in the capital Apia is approx. 3000 mm, mostly in December-April. In southeastern mountain slopes the annual rainfall can be 6000-7000 mm. The average temperature is 26-27 ° C with small seasonal variations. Tropical hurricanes can pass the islands in the period December-March and cause major devastation. Hurricane Val in 1992 caused major devastation.
Read more about Plant life in Samoa and Wildlife in Samoa.
Plant life in Samoa
The islands are covered in evergreen rainforest with, among other things, coconut palms, screw palms, Barringtonia species, vines and ferns. In low lying areas there is swamp and mangrove vegetation. On Savaii, there are large, barren lava areas.
Wildlife on Samoa
Flying dogs and bats are the only naturally occurring land mammals in Samoa. Mankind has introduced rats and pigs, among other things.
37 terrestrial birds include peregrine, matrices, pigeons and some indigenous passerines. The unique tooth pigeon is found only in wooded mountain sides on Savaii and Upolu. Frigatebirds, tropikfugler, boobies, sooty and Noddies are the main seabirds.
The 19 reptile species include lizards such as geckos and hams, as well as a stray snake (boa) on land and sea turtles and snakes along the coast.
Amphibians do not occur, but more than 400 species of fish live in coastal areas.
Butterflies and rhino beetles are characteristic insects. Day flies, spring flies and termites have their easternmost occurrence in the Pacific region of Samoa.