Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Sri Lanka is separated from India by the narrow and shallow Pole Strait. Most of the country is lowland. Particularly extensive is the lowland to the north. The country has plenty of coral reefs. at the Jaffna Peninsula in the north. Except in the southwest, the coast has long beach tracks with lagoons, sand dunes and damp sinks inside. To the east are wavy plains with isolated mountains. The central highlands are the most prominent topographic feature on the island. The highest point, Pidurutalagala, reaches 2,524 m above sea level, while the more famous and visited Adam’s Peak is 2,243 m above sea level.
Nearly 9/10 of the bedrock is made up of gneiss and slate from the Precambrian. Jurassic clay and sandstone occur, as do some coal. In the north and northwest it is mainly limestone from tertiary. Sri Lanka has many but relatively short rivers that flow radially from the highlands, often with series of waterfalls. At the far end is Mahaveli, 332 km. The soil is mostly lateritic, and on the coasts there is sandy soil.
Sri Lanka has a humid tropical climate, where the rainy monsoons are slightly modified by the relief and location near India. Precipitation varies between 1,000 and 5,000 mm per year; most get the southwest and high-lying parts, while the northwest and southeast parts are arid (less than 500 mm of precipitation per year).
The southwest monsoon blows May – October, the northeast monsoon December – March, but the winds are often irregular. The average temperature is 27 ° C during the year, in the high inland 18 ° C. The temperature during the day varies no more than 4 ° C. The humidity is high.
Most of the country consists of forested land, but monsoon forests are found here and there in the eastern parts. There are also several open dry fields and savannas. Tropical rainforest is limited to small areas in the humid areas of the southwest.
The lowland rainforest, which reaches about 1000 m above sea level, is rich in genera such as Dipterocaʹrpus, Shoʹrea (family dipterocarpus plants), Meʹsua (family clusia plants), Palaʹquium (family sapotillas) and Viʹtex (family verbenavx). These forests also house several important herbs, e.g. wild cinnamon.
At altitudes above 1,000 m you can find mountain rainforests with, among other things, Liʹtsea (family of stock plants), Micheʹlia (family of magnolia plants), Gordoʹnia (family of plants) and species of the endemic genus Stemonoʹporus (family of dipterocarpus plants). In the highlands, open grasslands and forests with low-growing trees are spread. different stock plants.
There are mangroves here and were along the coasts.
A relatively large proportion of the fauna is endemic: amphibians 19 (of 39 species), reptiles 75 (of 145), mammals 12 (of 86), birds 20 (of 220 breeding; a total of more than 400 species have been observed), freshwater fish 17 (of 64) and day butterflies 41 (of 242).
Indian elephant has good tribes on the island, mainly in lower lying dry areas. The country’s national parks have largely been created for the elephants, so for example. Ruhuna (Yala) National Park in the southeast. Leopard and lip bear are common locally, among other things. in the Wilpattu National Park in the northwest. Gold shawls and wild boar are scattered. There are four species of deer, including sambar and ax deer. Of the primates, ceylon macaque (Macaʹca siʹnica) and white-bearded langur (Presbyʹtis seʹnex) are endemic, while the cavern and slender lori are more prevalent.
In and around watercourses there is swamp crocodile and the bandage, around the coasts also delta crocodile.
Sri Lanka has a rich bird life, not least winter time. More spectacular species include peacocks, Indian paradise flycatchers (Terpsiphoʹne paradiʹsi), Malabarna hornbird (Anthracoʹceros coronaʹtus) and shamatrast (Coʹpsychus malabaʹricus), which is considered one of the world’s most beautiful birds.
In 2009, approximately 26% of the country’s area was protected by nature; inter alia there were 20 national parks.